Minerals & Metallurgical Processing

, Volume 33, Issue 3, pp 137–143 | Cite as

Effects of major ions in recycled water on sulfide minerals flotation

  • G. Bulut
  • Ü. YenialEmail author


The use of recycled water in flotation has significant effects on flotation and selectivity because the recycled water contains many dissolved compounds and ions that alter the chemistry of the system. In this study, the effects of calcium, magnesium and sulfate, which are abundant components in recycled water, were investigated on galena, sphalerite and pyrite flotation using pure minerals and a complex sulfide ore by conducting bench-scale flotation, microflotation and zeta potential measurements. The bench-scale flotation tests indicated that higher recoveries of galena and sphalerite are obtained when water is recycled, due to higher concentrations of ions in recycled water. However, there was a critical ion concentration for galena recovery. The microflotation tests showed that galena recoveries at different pHs in recycled water are lower than in tap and distilled water. Pure sphalerite recoveries improved in recycled water in the bench-scale test with ore. Pure pyrite was depressed with recycled water as well. Zeta potentials became less negative with increased calcium and magnesium ion concentrations due to their adsorptions, and the presence of sulfate ions was seen to increase the negative charges of sphalerite and pyrite, conversely for galena.

Key words

Recycling water Sulfide flotation Major ions 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bıçak, Ö., Ekmekçi Z., Metin, C., and Öztürk Y., 2012, “The effect of water chemistry on froth stability and surface chemistry of the flotation of a Cu–Zn sulfide ore,” International Journal of Mineral Processing, Vol. 102–103, pp. 32–37, Scholar
  2. Bulut, G., and Atak, S., 2002, “The role of dixanthogen on pyrite flotation solubility, adsorption studies and Eh, FTIR measurements,” Minerals & Metallurgical Processing, Vol. 19, No. 2, pp. 81–86.Google Scholar
  3. Bulut, G., Yenial, Ü., Emiroglu, E., and Sirkeci, A.A., 2014, “Arsenic removal from aqueous solution using pyrite,” Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 84, pp. 526–532, Scholar
  4. Castro, S., and Laskowski J.S., 2011, “Froth Flotation in Saline Water”, KONA Powder and Particle Journal, Vol. 29, pp. 4–14, Scholar
  5. Ceylan, A., Yenial, Ü., and Bulut, G., 2013, “Effect of recycled water in copper flotation,” Proceedings of The XV Balkan Mineral Processing Congress, Sozopol Bulgaria, June 12–16, 2013, pp. 497–501.Google Scholar
  6. Chandra, A.P., and Gerson, A.R., 2009, “A review of fundamental studies of the copper activation mechanisms for selective flotation of the sulphide minerals; sphalerite and pyrite,” Advance Colloid and Interface Science, Vol. 145, No. 1–2, pp. 97–110, Scholar
  7. Chen, J., Liu, R., Sun, W., and Qui, G., 2009, “Effect of mineral processing wastewater on flotation of sulfide minerals,” Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, Vol. 19, No. 2, pp. 454–457, Scholar
  8. Çagatay, A, 1980, “Geology and mineralogy of Western Anatolian lead-zinc deposits and some comments about their genesis,” Bulletin of the Geological Society of Turkey, Vol. 23, pp. 119–132.Google Scholar
  9. Chilean Copper Commission, 2015, “Research and Policy Planning Department Hydrological Consumption in Copper Mining for 2014,” Intellectual Property Registry N 253 227.Google Scholar
  10. Dávila-Pulido, G.I., Uribe-Salas, A., Álvarez-Silva, M., López-Saucedo, F., 2015, “The role of calcium in xanthate adsorption onto sphalerite,” Minerals Engineering, Vol. 71, pp. 113–119, Scholar
  11. Dzhamyarov, S., Evtiminova, K., Hristov, N., Grigorov, I., and Nishkov, I., 2013, “Influence of technological process waters on the flotation parameters,” Proceedings of The XV Balkan Mineral Processing Congress, Sozopol, Bulgaria, June 12–16, 2013, pp. 281–285.Google Scholar
  12. Ejtemaei, M., Plackowski, C., and Nguyen, A.V., 2016, “The effect of calcium, magnesium, and sulphate ions on the surface properties of copper activated sphalerite,” Minerals Engineering, Vol. 89, pp. 42–51, Scholar
  13. Fuerstenau, M.C., Miller, J.D., and Kuhn, M.C., 1985, Chemistry of Flotation, Kingsport Press, New York.Google Scholar
  14. Fuerstenau, M.C., Jameson, G., and Yoon, R., 2007, Froth Flotation, A Century of Innovation, Society for Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration Inc., Englewood, CO.Google Scholar
  15. Fuerstenau, D.W., and Mishra, R.K., 1980, “On the mechanism of pyrite flotation with xanthate collectors,” Complex Sulphide Ores, M.J. Jones, ed., I.M.M., London.Google Scholar
  16. Fuerstenau, M.C., Kuhn, M.C., and Elgillani, D.A., 1968, “The role of dixanthogen in xanthate flotation of pyrite,” Transactions of the Metallurgical Society of AIME, Vol. 241, pp. 148–156.Google Scholar
  17. Gaudin, A.M., Fuerstenau, D.W., and Mao, G.W., 1959, “Activation and deactivation studies with copper on sphalerite,” Minerals Engineering, Vol. 11, pp. 430–436.Google Scholar
  18. Gaudin, A.M., 1957, Flotation, McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  19. Gibson, C.E., and Kelebek, S., 2014, “Sensitivity of pentlandite flotation in complex sulfide ores towards pH control by lime versus soda ash: Effect on ore type,” International Journal of Mineral Processing, Vol. 127, pp. 44–51, Scholar
  20. Gunson, A.J., Klein, B., Veiga, M., and Dunbar, S.J., 2012, “Reducing mine water requirements,” Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 2, No.1, pp. 71–82, Scholar
  21. Ikumapayi, F., Makitalo, M., Johansson, B., and Rao, K.H., 2012a, “Recycled of process water in sulphide flotation: Effect of calcium and sulphate ions on flotation of galena,” Minerals Engineering, Vol. 39, pp. 77–88, Scholar
  22. Ikumapayi, F., Makitalo, M., Johansson, B., and Rao, K.H., 2012b, “Recycled process water in sulfide flotation, Part A: Effect of calcium and sulfate on sphalerite recovery,” Minerals & Metallurgical Processing, Vol. 29, No. 4, pp. 183–191.Google Scholar
  23. Ikumapayi, F., and Rao, K.H., 2015, “Recycled process water in complex sulfide ore flotation: effect of calcium and sulfate on sulfide minerals recovery,” Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy Review, Vol. 36, pp. 45–64, Scholar
  24. Iwasaki, I., Smith, K.A., Lipp, R.J., and Sato, V., 1980, “Effect of calcium and magnesium ion on selective desliming and cationic flotation of quartz from iron ores,” Fine Particles Processing, Somasundaran, P., ed., American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Inc., New York, Vol. 2, pp. 1057–1082.Google Scholar
  25. Kirjavainen, V., Schreithofer, N., and Heiskanen, K., 2002, “Effect of calcium and thiosulphate ions on flotation selectivity of nickel-copper ores,” Minerals Engineering, Vol. 15, No.1–2, pp. 1–5, Scholar
  26. Lascelles, D., Finch, J.A., and Sui, C., 2003, “Depressant action of Ca and Mg on flotation of activated sphalerite,” Canadian Metallurgical Quarterly, Vol.42, No.2, pp. 133–140, Scholar
  27. Levay, G., Smart, R.St.C., and Skinner W.M., 2001, “The impact of water quality on flotation performance,” The Journal of The South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, pp. 69–76.Google Scholar
  28. Liu, L., Rao, S.R., and Finch, J.A., 1993, “Technical note laboratory study of effect of recycle water on flotation of a Cu/Zn sulphide ore,” Minerals Engineering, Vol. 6, pp. 1183–1190, Scholar
  29. Rao, S.R., and Finch, J.A., 1989, “A review of water re-use in flotation,” Minerals Engineering, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 65–86, Scholar
  30. Sandenbergh, F., and Wei, Y., 2007, “The influence of water quality on the flotation of the Rosh Pinah complex lead-zınc sulfides,” The Fourth Southern African Conference on Base Metals, Namibia, July 23–25, 2007, pp.45–56.Google Scholar
  31. Schumann, R., Levay, G., and Ametov, I., 2009, “The impact of recycled on process water quality in mineral processing,” Processing Water in Mining Conference, Perth, 2009, pp.79–86.Google Scholar
  32. Sui, C., Rashchi, F., Xu, Z., Kim, J., Nesset J.E., and Finch, J.A., 1998, “Interactions in the sphalerite-Ca-SO4-CO3 systems,” Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, Vol. 137, No. 1–3, pp. 69–77, Scholar
  33. Yenial, Ü., and Bulut, G., 2014, “Effect of water composition on flotation of lead and zinc sulphide ore,” International Mineral Processing Congress, Chile, Oct. 20–24, 2014.Google Scholar
  34. Xu, J., Liu, R., Sun, W., Hu, Y., and Dai, J., 2012, “Effect of mineral processing wastewater on electrochemistry of galena,” Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering A, Vol. 1, pp. 279–285.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Society for Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Mines, Mineral Processing DepartmentIstanbul Technical UniversityMaslak, IstanbulTurkey

Personalised recommendations