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Increased mortality among Indigenous persons in a multisite cohort of people living with HIV in Canada

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Compare all-cause mortality between Indigenous participants and participants of other ethnicities living with HIV initiating combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in an interprovincial multi-site cohort.

METHODS: The Canadian Observational Cohort is a collaboration of 8 cohorts of treatment-naïve persons with HIV initiating cART after January 1, 2000. Participants were followed from the cART initiation date until death or last viral load (VL) test date on or before December 31, 2012. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the effect of ethnicity on time until death after adjusting for age, gender, injection drug use, being a man who has sex with men, hepatitis C, province of origin, baseline VL and CD4 count, year of cART initiation and class of antiretroviral medication.

RESULTS: The study sample consisted of 7080 participants (497 Indigenous, 2471 Caucasian, 787 African/Caribbean/Black (ACB), 629 other, and 2696 unknown ethnicity). Most Indigenous persons were from British Columbia (BC) (83%), with smaller numbers from Ontario (13%) and Québec (4%). During the study period, 714 (10%) participants died. The five-year survival probability was lower for Indigenous persons (0.77) than for Caucasian (0.94), ACB (0.98), other ethnicities (0.96) and unknown ethnicities (0.85) (p < 0.0001). In an adjusted proportional hazard model for which missing data were imputed, Indigenous persons were more likely to die than Caucasian participants (hazard ratio = 2.69, p < 0.0001).

CONCLUSION: The mortality rate for Indigenous persons was higher than for other ethnicities and is largely reflective of the BC population. Addressing treatment challenges and identifying HIV- and non-HIV-related causes for mortality among Indigenous persons is required to optimize their clinical management.

Résumé

OBJECTIF: Comparer la mortalité toutes causes confondues de participants autochtones et de participants d’autres origines ethniques vivant avec le VIH ayant entrepris un traitement antirétroviral d’association (TARa) dans une cohorte interprovinciale multi-sites.

MÉTHODE: Le centre de recherche collaborative CANOC (Canadian HIV Observational Cohort Collaboration) est une collaboration impliquant 8 cohortes de patients atteints du VIH n’ayant jamais reçu de traitement qui ont amorcé un TARa après le 1er janvier 2000. Ces patients ont été suivis depuis la date de début de leur TARa jusqu’à leur décès ou à la date de la dernière mesure de leur charge virale, soit au plus tard le 31 décembre 2012. À l’aide de modèles à risques proportionnels de Cox, nous avons estimé l’effet de l’ethnicité sur la longévité après avoir tenu compte de l’âge, du sexe, de l’utilisation de drogues par injection, du fait d’être un homme ayant des relations sexuelles avec des hommes, de l’hépatite C, de la province d’origine, de la charge virale et de la numération des lymphocytes CD4 de référence, de l’année de début du TARa et de la classe d’antirétroviraux.

RÉSULTATS: L’échantillon de l’étude comprenait 7 080 participants (497 Autochtones, 2 471 Blancs, 787 personnes des communautés africaine, caribéenne et noire [ACN], 629 personnes d’autres origines ethniques, et 2 696 personnes d’ethnicité inconnue). La plupart des Autochtones venaient de la Colombie-Britannique (C.-B.) (83 %) et dans de moindres proportions de l’Ontario (13 %) et du Québec (4 %). Durant la période de l’étude, 714 participants (10 %) sont décédés. La probabilité de survie après cinq ans a été plus faible chez les Autochtones (0,77) que chez les Blancs (0,94), les participants des communautés ACN (0,98), les participants d’autres origines ethniques (0,96) et les participants d’ethnicité inconnue (0,85) (p < 0,0001). Avec un modèle à risques proportionnels ajusté pour lequel les données manquantes ont été imputées, les Autochtones ont été plus susceptibles de mourir que les Blancs (coefficient de danger = 2,69, p<0,0001).

CONCLUSION: Le taux de mortalité des Autochtones était plus élevé que celui des participants d’autres origines ethniques et reflète dans une large mesure la population de la C.-B. Il est nécessaire d’aborder les défis thérapeutiques et de déterminer les causes de mortalité liées et non liées au VIH chez les Autochtones pour optimiser leur prise en charge clinique.

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Correspondence to Janet Raboud PhD.

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Acknowledgements: First and foremost, the authors thank all of the Building Bridges participants for sharing their experiences and allowing for this project to be driven by community interests. The authors also thank all the participants for allowing their information to be a part of the CANOC collaboration [See ARTICLE TOOLS section on journal site for Supplementary Appendix: CANOC].

Sources of Funding: CANOC is funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) through a Centres for HIV/AIDS Population Health and Health Services Research Grant [CIHR 02684], Operating Grants HIV/AIDS Priority Announcement [CIHR 134047] and Population and Public Health [CIHR 136882], and by the CIHR Canadian HIV Trials Network (CTN 242) as well as a Foundation Grant (Expansion of Antiretroviral Therapy and its Impact on Vulnerable Populations in Canada and Global Settings [CIHR 143342]). Building Bridges is supported by a CIHR Catalyst Grant. JR is supported through an Ontario HIV Treatment Network (OHTN) Chair in Biostatistics. ANB and TA are supported by CIHR New Investigator Awards and ACB was supported by a CIHR Fellowship Award at the time of this project. CC is supported through an Applied HIV Research Chair from the OHTN. DJ is supported by the Clinician Investigator Program at the University of British Columbia. MK is supported by a Chercheur National Career Award from the Fonds de Recherche Québec-Santé (FRQ-S). RSH is supported by a University Professorship at Simon Fraser University.

Conflict of Interest: CC has served on advisory boards for Abbvie and Gilead Sciences. MBK reports grants from Merck and ViiV Healthcare and personal fees for consultancy from ViiV Healthcare, Bristol-Meyers Squibb, and Merck. ML has served on advisory boards and spoken at CME events for Viiv Healthcare, Abbvie, Merck Canada Inc. and Gilead Sciences. NM has been a speaker for Bristol-Meyers Squibb, Merck, and ViiV Healthcare. JSGM is supported with grants paid to his institution by the British Columbia Ministry of Health and by the US National Institutes of Health (R01DA036307). He has also received limited unrestricted funding, paid to his institution, from Abbvie, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Gilead Sciences, Janssen, Merck, and ViiV Healthcare. JR is co-investigator on four projects, outside the submitted work, with in-kind contributions or financial support from Merck and Gilead Sciences. AR has served on medical advisory boards for ViiV Healthcare, Merck and Gilead Sciences. RSH reports personal fees from Gilead Sciences. For the remaining authors, no conflicts of interest were declared.

Building Bridges research team

Building Bridges consists of a research team in Toronto, Ontario and Vancouver, British Columbia. The nominated principal investigator was Mark Hull, located in Vancouver, and the Vancouver research team consisted of co-investigators Robert Hogg, Denise Jaworsky, Janet Raboud and Elizabeth Benson; additional research team members were Susan Giles, Evanna Brennan and Hasina Samji. Denise Jaworsky coordinated the project in Vancouver under the guidance of the Vancouver research team along with the Indigenous community advisory committee: Carol Kellman, Valerie Nicholson, Elder Doris Xele’milh Paul, Elder Roberta Price, and Flo Ranville. Mona Loutfy was the principal investigator in Toronto and the principal community investigator was Renée Masching. The Toronto research team consisted of co-investigators Anita C. Benoit, Doe O’Brien-Teengs and Janet Raboud. Jaime Younger conducted the data analyses for the Toronto Research team. Anita Benoit assumed direction of the project in Toronto under the guidance and expertise of the Toronto research team and assistance from Kerrigan Beaver, which includes the Indigenous community advisory committee, some of whom have requested to be listed: Kerrigan Beaver, Randy Jackson, Michael Keshane, Tony Nobis, Earl Nowgesic, Tera Tynes, Tonie Walsh, Spiritual Leader Wanda Whitebird and Art Zoccole. Toronto research team members substantially contributed to the conception and design, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data.

CANOC investigators

The CANOC principal investigators consist of Centre investigator Robert Hogg and Centre site investigators Ann N. Burchell, Curtis Cooper, Deborah Kelly, Marina Klein, Mona Loutfy, Nima Machouf, Julio Montaner, Janet Raboud, Chris Tsoukas, Stephen Sanche, Alexander Wong, Ahmed Bayoumi, Tony Antoniou, Bohdan Nosyk and Mark Hull. CANOC co-investigators include Angela Cescon, Michelle Cotterchio, Charlie Goldsmith, Silvia Guillemi, P. Richard Harrigan, Marianne Harris, Sean Hosein, Sharon Johnston, Claire Kendall, Clare Liddy, Viviane Lima, David Marsh, David Moore, Alexis Palmer, Sophie Patterson, Peter Phillips, Anita Rachlis, Sean B. Rourke, Hasina Samji, Marek Smieja, Benoit Trottier, Mark Wainberg [Dr. Mark Wainberg passed away after the manuscript was accepted for publication] and Sharon Walmsley.

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Benoit, A.C., Younger, J., Beaver, K. et al. Increased mortality among Indigenous persons in a multisite cohort of people living with HIV in Canada. Can J Public Health 108, e169–e175 (2017). https://doi.org/10.17269/CJPH.108.5708

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Key Words

  • Indigenous
  • mortality
  • HIV
  • cohort study
  • combination antiretroviral therapy

Mots Clés

  • Autochtones
  • mortalité
  • VIH
  • étude de cohorte
  • traitement antirétroviral d’association