Advertisement

Association of immigrant generational status with asthma

  • Anne PhilipneriEmail author
  • Steven Hanna
  • Piush J. Mandhane
  • Katholiki Georgiades
Quantitative Research
  • 9 Downloads

Abstract

Objective

We sought to examine whether asthma risk is lower in second-generation immigrants (i.e., Canadian-born children with at least one foreign-born parent) and first-generation immigrants (i.e., foreign-born children) compared with non-immigrants (i.e., Canadian-born children to Canadian-born parents).

Methods

Data were obtained from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth from 1994 to 2008, which measured child health and developmental factors from birth to early adulthood. The sample included 15,799 participants aged 2–26 years. Asthma was defined as diagnosis by a health professional as having asthma, having wheezing or whistling in the chest, or use of medication for asthma.

Results

Prevalence of asthma (defined as a combination of any three factors) was lower in first-generation (32%) and second-generation (34%) immigrants compared with non-immigrants (46%). After controlling for covariates, first- and second-generation immigrants had 0.21 (AOR = 0.21; 95% CI = 0.07–0.67) and 0.19 (AOR = 0.19; 95% CI = 0.09–0.39) lower odds of reporting asthma compared with non-immigrants, respectively. For every year the parent(s) of second-generation immigrants resided in Canada, the odds for asthma increased by 5% (AOR = 1.05; 95% CI = 1.02–1.06).

Conclusion

Immigrant children and youth in Canada, regardless of whether they are first- or second-generation, have lower odds for asthma compared with non-immigrants.

Keywords

Asthma Wheezing Allergies Immigrants First-generation immigrants Second-generation immigrants 

Résumé

Objectif

Nous avons voulu déterminer si le risque d’asthme est plus faible chez les immigrants de deuxième génération (enfants nés au Canada ayant au moins un parent né à l’étranger) et les immigrants de première génération (enfants nés à l’étranger) que chez les non-immigrants (enfants nés au Canada de parents nés au Canada).

Méthode

Nos données provenaient de l’Enquête longitudinale nationale sur les enfants et les jeunes (1994 à 2008), qui mesurait la santé des enfants et les facteurs développementaux de la naissance au début de l’âge adulte. L’échantillon comptait 15 799 participants âgés de 2 à 26 ans. La définition de l’asthme comprenait un diagnostic d’asthme par un professionnel de la santé, une respiration bruyante ou sifflante, ou l’utilisation de médicaments contre l’asthme.

Résultats

La prévalence de l’asthme (définie comme une combinaison de ces trois facteurs) était plus faible chez les immigrants de première génération (32 %) et de deuxième génération (34 %) que chez les non-immigrants (46 %). Compte tenu des covariables, la probabilité de déclarer de l’asthme était plus faible de 0,21 (rapport de cotes ajusté [RCa] = 0,21; IC de 95% = 0,07-0,67) chez les immigrants de première génération et de 0,19 (RCa = 0,19; IC de 95% = 0,09-0,39) chez les immigrants de deuxième génération que chez les non-immigrants. Chez les immigrants de deuxième génération, pour chaque année de résidence des parents au Canada, la probabilité d’asthme augmentait de 5 % (RCa = 1,05; IC de 95% = 1,02-1,06).

Conclusion

Les enfants et les jeunes immigrants au Canada, qu’ils soient de première ou de deuxième génération, présentent une probabilité d’asthme plus faible que les non-immigrants.

Mots-clés

Asthme Respiration sifflante Allergie Immigrants Immigrants de première génération Immigrants de deuxième génération 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

41997_2019_201_MOESM1_ESM.docx (15 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 14 kb)
41997_2019_201_MOESM2_ESM.xlsx (36 kb)
ESM 2 (XLSX 36 kb)

References

  1. Akinbami, L. J., Moorman, J. E., Garbe, P. L., & Sondik, E. J. (2009). Status of childhood asthma in the United States, 1980–2007. Pediatrics, 123(Supplement), S131–S145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beasley, R., Ellwood, P., & Asher, I. (2003). International patterns of the prevalence of pediatric asthma the ISAAC program. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 50(3), 539–553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Benchimol, E. I., Manuel, D. G., To T, Mack, D. R., Nguyen, G. C., Gommerman, J. L., et al. (2015). Asthma, type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and inflammatory bowel disease amongst South Asian immigrants to Canada and their children: a population-based cohort study. PLoS One, 10(4), 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Betancourt, M. T., Roberts, K. C., Bennett, T. L., Driscoll, E. R., Jayaraman, G., & Pelletier, L. (2014). Monitoring chronic diseases in Canada: the chronic disease indicator framework. Chronic Diseases and Injuries in Canada, 34, 1–31.Google Scholar
  5. Burke, W., Fesinmeyer, M., Reed, K., Hampson, L., & Carlsten, C. (2003). Family history as a predictor of asthma risk. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 24(2), 160–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cabieses, B., Uphoff, E., Pinart, M., Anto, J. M., Wright, J. (2014). A systematic review on the development of asthma and allergic diseases in relation to international immigration: the leading role of the environment confirmed. PLoS One, 9(8).Google Scholar
  7. Cook, D. G., & Strachan, D. P. (1999). Summary of effects of parental smoking on the respiratory health of children and implications for research. Thorax, 54(4), 357–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Eldeirawi, K., McConnell, R., Furner, S., Freels, S., Stayner, L., Hernandez, E., et al. (2009). Associations of doctor-diagnosed asthma with immigration status, age at immigration, and length of residence in the United States in a sample of Mexican American School Children in Chicago. The Journal of Asthma, 46(8), 796–802.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Engels, J. M., & Diehr, P. (2003). Imputation of missing longitudinal data: a comparison of methods. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 56(10), 968–976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hederos, C. A., Hasselgren, M., Hedlin, G., & Bornehag, C. G. (2007). Comparison of clinically diagnosed asthma with parental assessment of children’s asthma in a questionnaire. Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, 18(2), 135–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hjern, A., Haglund, B., Bremberg, S., & Ringbäck-Weitoft, G. (1999). Social adversity, migration and hospital admissions for childhood asthma in Sweden. Acta Paediatrica, 88(10), 1107–1112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kuehni, C. E. (2011). Do migrant studies help to identify causes of asthma? Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 41(8), 1054–1058.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Laerum, B. N., Svanes, C., Wentzel-Larsen, T., Gulsvik, A., Torén, K., Norrman, E., et al. (2007). Young maternal age at delivery is associated with asthma in adult offspring. Respiratory Medicine, 101(7), 1431–1438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lara, M., Akinbami, L., Flores, G., & Morgenstern, H. (2006). Heterogeneity of childhood asthma among Hispanic children: Puerto Rican children bear a disproportionate burden. Pediatrics, 117(1), 43–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Migliore, E., Pearce, N., Bugiani, M., Galletti, G., Biggeri, A., Bisanti, L., et al. (2007). Prevalence of respiratory symptoms in migrant children to Italy: the results of SIDRIA-2 study. Allergy, 293–300.Google Scholar
  16. Netuveli, G., Hurwitz, B., & Sheikh, A. (2005). Ethnic variations in incidence of asthma episodes in England & Wales: national study of 502,482 patients in primary care. Respiratory Research, 6, 120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Pekkanen, J., & Pearce, N. (1999). Defining asthma in epidemiological studies. The European Respiratory Journal, 14(4), 951–957.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Pekkanen, J., Sunyer, J., Anto, J. M., Burney, P., Abramson, M., Kutin, J., et al. (2005). Operational definitions of asthma in studies on its aetiology. The European Respiratory Journal, 26(1), 28–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Remes, S. T., Pekkanen, J., Remes, K., Salonen, R. O., & Korppi, M. (2002). In search of childhood asthma: questionnaire, tests of bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and clinical evaluation. Thorax, 57(2), 120–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Rottem, M., Szyper-Kravitz, M., & Shoenfeld, Y. (2005). Atopy and asthma in migrants. International Archives of Allergy and Immunology, 136, 198–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. SAS Institute Inc.(2014). SAS software 9.4 (pp. 1–25). SAS Institute Inc. MarketLine Company.Google Scholar
  22. Schwartz, J., Gold, D., Dockery, D. W., Weiss, S. T., & Speizer, F. E. (1990). Predictors of asthma and persistent wheeze in a national sample of children in the United States. Association with social class, perinatal events, and race. The American Review of Respiratory Disease, 142(3), 555–562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Stanojevic, S., Shah, B. R., Anand, S. S., Sears, M. R., Su, J., & Subbarao, P. (2014). The burden of asthma among South Asian and Chinese populations residing in Ontario. Canadian Respiratory Journal, 21(6), 346–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Statistics Canada (2010). National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. Survey overview for the 2008/2009 data collection. Cycle 8. Ottawa, ON. Available at: http://www23.statcan.gc.ca/imdb-bmdi/document/4450_D2_T9_V4-eng.pdf. Accessed 11 June 2018.
  25. Stern, D. A., Morgan, W. J., Halonen, M., Wright, A. L., & Martinez, F. D. (2008). Wheezing and bronchial hyper-responsiveness in early childhood as predictors of newly diagnosed asthma in early adulthood: a longitudinal birth-cohort study. Lancet, 372(9643), 1058–1064.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Subbarao, P., Mandhane, P. J., Sears, M. R. (2009). Asthma: epidemiology, etiology and risk factors. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 181(9).Google Scholar
  27. Thomas, E. M. (2010). Recent trends in upper respiratory infections, ear infections and asthma among young Canadian children. Health Reports, 21(4), 47–52.Google Scholar
  28. Wang, H. Y., Wong, G. W. K., Chen, Y. Z., Ferguson, A. C., Greene, J. M., Ma, Y., et al. (2008). Prevalence of asthma among Chinese adolescents living in Canada and in China. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 179(11), 1133–1142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Whitrow, M. J., & Harding, S. (2010). Asthma in Black African, Black Caribbean and South Asian adolescents in the MRC DASH study: a cross sectional analysis. BMC Pediatrics, 10, 18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Yu, I. T. S., Wong, T. W., & Li, W. (2004). Using child reported respiratory symptoms to diagnose asthma in the community. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 89(6), 544–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Canadian Public Health Association 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence, and ImpactMcMaster UniversityWest HamiltonCanada
  2. 2.Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine and DentistryUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada
  3. 3.Offord Centre for Child StudiesMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada
  4. 4.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural NeurosciencesMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada

Personalised recommendations