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Canadian Journal of Public Health

, Volume 110, Issue 1, pp 36–43 | Cite as

Limited impact of pneumococcal vaccines on invasive pneumococcal disease in Nunavik (Quebec)

  • Jean-Baptiste LeMeur
  • Brigitte Lefebvre
  • Jean-François Proulx
  • Philippe De WalsEmail author
Quantitative Research
  • 66 Downloads

Abstract

Objective

In 2002, a mass immunization campaign using the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) was carried out in Nunavik to control an outbreak caused by a virulent clone of serotype 1 Streptococcus pneumoniae. At the same time, the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced for routine immunization of infants, replaced by the 10-valent vaccine (PCV10) in 2009, and the 13-valent vaccine (PCV13) in 2011. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in relation to pneumococcal vaccine use.

Method

Retrospective analysis of IPD cases identified by the Quebec Public Health Laboratory during the period 1997–2016.

Results

One hundred thirty-two IPD cases were identified during the study period. In adults, serotype 1 incidence decreased following the 2002 PPV23 mass campaign, but breakthrough cases occurred. Following PCV use, the incidence of vaccine-type IPD decreased markedly in children and also in adults but serotypes not covered by conjugate vaccines increased. The overall IPD rate was 43/100,000 person-years in the 1997–1999 pre-vaccine era and 58/100,000 person-years in 2010–2016.

Conclusions

The 2002 PPV23 mass immunization campaign may have contributed to control the serotype 1 outbreaks in Nunavik, but its effect was short-lived as IPDs caused by serotypes included in this vaccine continued to occur after 2005. PCV use in children induced important modifications in the epidemiology of IPD, but most of the benefits were eroded by serotype replacement.

Keywords

Immunization Epidemiology Streptococcus pneumonia Pediatric vaccine Inuit 

Résumé

Objectif

En 2002, une campagne de vaccination de masse avec le vaccin pneumococcique polysaccharidique 23-valent (VPPS23) eut lieu au Nunavik pour contrôler une épidémie due à un clone virulent de Streptococcus pneumoniae de serotype 1. Au même moment, le vaccin pneumococcique conjugué heptavalent (VPC7) était introduit au calendrier de vaccination des nourrissons, puis fût remplacé par un vaccin décavalent (VPC10) en 2009 et par un vaccin 13-valent (VPC13) en 2011. Le but de cette étude était de décrire l’épidémiologie des infections invasives à pneumocoques (IIP) en rapport avec l’utilisation des vaccins pneumococciques.

Méthode

Analyse rétrospective des cas d’IIP identifiés par le Laboratoire de Santé Publique du Québec (LSPQ) durant la période 1997-2017.

Résultats

132 cas d’IIP furent identifiés au cours de la période d’étude. Chez les adultes, l’incidence des IIP dues au sérotype 1 déclina suite à la campagne de vaccination de masse de 2002 mais plusieurs cas survinrent tout de même par la suite. Après l’introduction du VPC7, l’incidence des IIP causées par des sérotypes vaccinaux baissa fortement dans toute la population mais un remplacement de sérotypes fût observé. L’incidence globale des IIP était de 43/100 000 personne-années au cours de la période pré-vaccins 1997-1999 et de 58/100 000 personne-années au cours de la période 2010-2016.

Conclusions

La campagne de vaccination de masse de 2002 a probablement contribué à contrôler l’épidémie d’IIP dues au sérotype 1 mais son effet fût de courte durée puisque des IIP causées par des sérotypes couverts par ce vaccin ont continué à arriver après 2005. L’introduction du VPC chez les enfants a induit des changements importants dans l’épidémiologie des IIP mais la majeure partie des gains a été perdue à cause du remplacement de sérotypes.

Mots-clés

Immunisation Épidémiologie Streptococcus pneumonia Vaccin pédiatrique Inuit 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank all the health professionals in Nunavik who participated in the data collection.

Funding

The study was performed thanks to the financial support of the Quebec Ministry of Health and Social Services, GlaxoSmithKline, and Pfizer. Sponsors had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of data; and preparation of the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Philippe De Wals received research grants, honoraria, and reimbursements of travel expenses from vaccine manufacturers, including GlaxoSmithKline, Novartis, Pfizer, and Sanofi Pasteur. The remaining authors declare no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© The Canadian Public Health Association 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jean-Baptiste LeMeur
    • 1
    • 2
  • Brigitte Lefebvre
    • 3
  • Jean-François Proulx
    • 4
  • Philippe De Wals
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Institut National de Santé Publique du QuébecMontréalCanada
  2. 2.Département de Médecine Sociale et PréventiveUniversité LavalQuébec CityCanada
  3. 3.Laboratoire de Santé Publique du QuébecInstitut National de Santé Publique du QuébecSainte-Anne-de-BellevueCanada
  4. 4.Direction de la Santé Publique du NunavikKuujjuaqCanada

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