Advertisement

Canadian Journal of Public Health

, Volume 106, Issue 5, pp e277–e282 | Cite as

Are sleep duration and sleep quality associated with diet quality, physical activity, and body weight status? A population-based study of Canadian children

  • Mohammad K. A. Khan
  • Yen Li Chu
  • Sara F. L. Kirk
  • Paul J. Veugelers
Quantitative Research
  • 1 Downloads

Abstract

Objectives

To describe sleep duration and sleep characteristics, and to examine the associations between sleep duration and characteristics and body weight status, diet quality, and physical activity levels among grade 5 children in Nova Scotia.

Methods

A provincially representative sample of 5,560 grade 5 children and their parents in Nova Scotia was surveyed. Parents were asked to report their child’s bedtime and wake-up time, and to indicate how often their child snored or felt sleepy during the day. Dietary intake and physical activity were self-reported by children using the Harvard Youth/Adolescent Food Frequency Questionnaire and the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children respectively. Body weight status was determined using measured heights and weights. Linear and logistic random effects models with children nested within schools were used to test for associations.

Results

Approximately half of the surveyed parents reported that their children were not getting adequate sleep at night. Longer sleep duration was statistically significantly associated with decreased risk for overweight and obesity independent of other sleep characteristics (OR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.73, 0.91). Longer sleep duration was also associated with better diet quality and higher levels of physical activity.

Conclusions

These findings indicate a need for health promotion strategies to encourage adequate sleep and to promote healthy sleep environments among children. Given the links among sleep, body weight status and lifestyle behaviours, these messages should be included in public health interventions aimed at preventing obesity and promoting health among children.

Key Words

Sleep diet quality physical activity body weight child 

Résumé

Objectifs

Décrire la durée et les caractéristiques du sommeil, et examiner les associations entre la durée et les caractéristiques du sommeil, d’une part, et le statut pondéral, la qualité du régime alimentaire et les niveaux d’activité physique, d’autre part, chez les élèves de 5e année en Nouvelle-Écosse.

Méthode

Nous avons sondé un échantillon provincial représentatif de 5 560 élèves de 5e année et leurs parents en Nouvelle-Écosse. Nous avons demandé aux parents d’inscrire l’heure du coucher et du lever de leur enfant et d’indiquer combien souvent leur enfant ronflait ou se sentait fatigué durant la journée. L’apport alimentaire et l’activité physique ont été autodéclarés par les enfants à l’aide des questionnaires Harvard Youth/Adolescent Food Frequency et Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children, respectivement. Nous avons déterminé le statut pondéral à l’aide de la taille et du poids mesurés. Des modèles linéaires et logistiques à effets aléatoires, avec les données des enfants emboîtées dans celles des écoles, ont servi à tester les associations.

Résultats

Environ la moitié des parents sondés ont déclaré que leurs enfants ne dormaient pas suffisamment la nuit. Un sommeil plus long présentait une corrélation statistiquement significative avec un risque réduit de surpoids et d’obésité, indépendamment des autres caractéristiques du sommeil (RC = 0,82, IC de 95 %: 0,73, 0,91). Un sommeil plus long était également associé à un régime alimentaire de meilleure qualité et à des niveaux d’activité physique supérieurs.

Conclusions

Il faudrait des stratégies de promotion de la santé qui encouragent un sommeil suffisant et de sains environnements de sommeil chez les enfants. Étant donné les liens entre le sommeil, le statut pondéral et les comportements liés au mode de vie, de tels messages devraient être inclus dans les interventions de santé publique visant à prévenir l’obésité et à promouvoir la santé chez les enfants.

Mots Clés

sommeil qualité du régime alimentaire activité physique; poids enfant 

References

  1. 1.
    Matricciani L, Olds T, Petkov J. In search of lost sleep: Secular trends in the sleep time of school-aged children and adolescents. Sleep Med Rev 2012; 16(3):203–11. PMID: 21612957. doi: 10.1016/j.smrv.2011.03.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chaput JP. Lambert M, Gray-Donald K, McGrath JJ. Tremblay MS. O’Loughlin J, et al. Short sleep duration is independently associated with overweight and obesity in Quebec children. Can J Public Health 2011; 102(5):369–74. PMID: 22032104. doi: 10.1016/s1499-2671(11)52027-1.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Firouzi S, Poh BK. Ismail MN. Sadeghilar A. Sleep habits, food intake, and physical activity levels in normal and overweight and obese Malaysian children. Obes Res Clin Pract 2014;8(1):e1–e114. PMID: 24548579. doi: 10.1016/j. orcp.2012.12.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Patel SR. Hu FB. Short sleep duration and weight gain: A systematic review. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2008;16(3):643–53. PMID: 18239586. doi: 10.1038/oby. 2007.118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Seegers V, Petit D, Falissard B, Vitaro F, Tremblay RE. Montplaisir J, et al. Short sleep duration and body mass index: A prospective longitudinal study in preadolescence. Am J Epidemiol 2011;173(6):621–29. PMID: 21303806. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwq389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Touchette E, Petit D, Tremblay RE. Boivin M, Falissard B, Genolini C, et al. Associations between sleep duration patterns and overweight/obesity at age 6. Sleep 2008;31(11):1507–14. PMID: 19014070.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Booth JN. Bromley LE. Darukhanavala AP. Whitmore HR. Imperial JG. Penev PD. Reduced physical activity in adults at risk for type 2 diabetes who curtail their sleep. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2012;20(2):278–84. PMID: 21996665. doi: 10. 1038/oby.2011.306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Burt J, Dube L, Thibault L, Gruber R. Sleep and eating in childhood: A potential behavioral mechanism underlying the relationship between poor sleep and obesity. Sleep Med 2014;15(1):71–75. PMID: 24239496. doi: 10.1016/j. sleep.2013.07.015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Beebe DW. Simon S, Summer S, Hemmer S, Strotman D, Dolan LM. Dietary intake following experimentally restricted sleep in adolescents. Sleep 2013;36(6):827–34. PMID: 23729925. doi: 10.5665/sleep.2704.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bromley LE. Booth JN. 3rd, Kilkus JM. Imperial JG. Penev PD. Sleep restriction decreases the physical activity of adults at risk for type 2 diabetes. Sleep 2012;35(7):977–84. PMID: 22754044. doi: 10.5665/sleep.1964.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    St-Onge MP. The role of sleep duration in the regulation of energy balance: Effects on energy intakes and expenditure. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(1):73–80. PMID: 23319909. doi: 10.5664/jcsm.2348.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    CLASS II. Children’s Lifestyle and School-performance Study. Available at: https://doi.org/www.nsclass.ca/ (Accessed November 7, 2014).
  13. 13.
    University of Minnesota. Project EA. Available at: https://doi.org/www.sphresearch.umn.edu/epi/project-eat/ (Accessed November 7, 2014).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kim S, Haines PS. Siega-Riz AM. Popkin BM. The Diet Quality Index — International (DQI-I) provides an effective tool for cross-national comparison of diet quality as illustrated by China and the United States. J Nutr 2003;133(11):3476–84. PMID: 14608061.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rockett HR. Wolf AM. Colditz GA. Development and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire to assess diets of older children and adolescents. J Am Diet Assoc 1995;95(3):336–40. PMID: 7860946. doi: 10.1016/S0002-8223(95)00086-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Health Canada. The Canadian Nutrient File. 2007. Available at: https://doi.org/www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/nutrition/fiche-nutri-data/cnf_aboutus-aproposdenous_fcen-eng.php (Accessed November 7, 2014).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Willett W. Nutritional Epidemiology. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1998; 514 p.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Janz KF. Lutuchy EM. Wenthe P, Levy SM. Measuring activity in children and adolescents using self-report: PAQ-C and PA.-A. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2008; 40(4):767–72. PMID: 18317366. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181620sed1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cole TJ. Bellizzi MC. Flegal KM. Dietz WH. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: International survey. BMJ 2000;320(7244):1240–43. PMID: 10797032. doi: 10.1136/bmj.320.7244.1240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mindell JA. Owens JA. Carskadon MA. Developmental features of sleep. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 1999;8(4):695–725. PMID: 10553199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Touchette E, Petit D, Seguin JR. Boivin M, Tremblay RE. Montplaisir JY. Associations between sleep duration patterns and behavioral/cognitive functioning at school entry. Sleep 2007;30(9):1213–19. PMID: 17910393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    National Sleep Foundation. Children and Sleep. 2013. Available at: https://doi.org/www.sleepfoundation.org/sleep-topics/children-and-sleep (Accessed November 7, 2014).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bel S, Michels N, De Vriendt T, Patterson E, Cuenca-Garcia M, Diethelm K, et al. Association between self-reported sleep duration and dietary quality in European adolescents. Br J Nutr 2013;110(5):949–59. PMID: 23506795. doi: 10.1017/S0007114512006046.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Olds TS. Maher CA. Matricciani L. Sleep duration or bedtime? Exploring the relationship between sleep habits and weight status and activity patterns. Sleep 2011;34(10):1299–307. PMID: 21966061. doi: 10.5665/SLEEP.1266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Golley RK. Maher CA. Matricciani L, Olds TS. Sleep duration or bedtime? Exploring the association between sleep timing behaviour, diet and BM. in children and adolescents. Int J Obes (Lond) 2013;37(4):546–51. PMID: 23295498. doi: 10.1038/ijo.2012.212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Li S, Jin X, Yan C, Wu S, Jiang F, Shen X. Habitual snoring in school-aged children: Environmental and biological predictors. Respir Res 2010;11:144. PMID: 20955625. doi: 10.1186/1465-9921-11-144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Panossian LA. Veasey SC. Daytime sleepiness in obesity: Mechanisms beyond obstructive sleep apnea–A review. Sleep 2012;35(5):605–15. PMID: 22547886. doi: 10.5665/sleep.1812.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    de Jong E, Stocks T, Visscher TL. HiraSing RA. Seidell JC. Renders CM. Association between sleep duration and overweight: The importance of parenting. Int J Obes (Lond) 2012;36(10):1278–84. PMID: 22825658. doi: 10.1038/ijo.2012.119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Chahal H, Fung C, Kuhle S, Veugelers PJ. Availability and night-time use of electronic entertainment and communication devices are associated with short sleep duration and obesity among Canadian children. Pediatr Obes 2013;8(1):42–51. PMID: 22962067. doi: 10.1111/j.2047-6310.2012.00085.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Iwasaki M, Iwata S, Iemura A, Yamashita N, Tomino Y, Anme T, et al. Utility of subjective sleep assessment tools for healthy preschool children: A comparative study between sleep logs, questionnaires, and actigraphy. J Epidemiol 2010;20(2):143–49. PMID: 20139658.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Nixon GM. Thompson JM. Han DY. Becroft DM. Clark PM. Robinson E, et al. Short sleep duration in middle childhood: Risk factors and consequences. Sleep 2008;31(1):71–78. PMID: 18220080.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Canadian Public Health Association 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammad K. A. Khan
    • 1
  • Yen Li Chu
    • 1
  • Sara F. L. Kirk
    • 2
  • Paul J. Veugelers
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Public HealthUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada
  2. 2.School of Health and Human PerformanceDalhousie UniversityHalifaxCanada

Personalised recommendations