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Canadian Journal of Public Health

, Volume 107, Issue 4–5, pp e410–e416 | Cite as

Determinants of vitamin D status in pregnant women and neonates

  • Christy G. Woolcott
  • Yves Giguère
  • Hope A. Weiler
  • Anne Spencer
  • Jean-Claude Forest
  • B. Anthony Armson
  • Linda Dodds
Quantitative Research
  • 1 Downloads

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Evidence suggests a beneficial effect of vitamin D on perinatal health; however, low vitamin D status is prevalent in pregnant women and neonates. The objective was to determine factors that are associated with vitamin D status of mothers in early pregnancy and neonates.

METHODS: The study comprised 1,635 pregnant women from Quebec City and Halifax, Canada, 2002–2010. Vitamin D status was based on the concentration of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D [25(OH)D] determined with a chemiluminescence immunoassay in maternal sera collected at a median of 15 weeks’ gestation and in neonatal cord sera at delivery. A questionnaire with information on potential determinants was completed midpregnancy.

RESULTS: A total of 44.8% of mothers and 24.4% of neonates had 25(OH)D concentrations <50 nmol/L. Adjusted mean (95% confidence interval) maternal 25(OH)D levels were higher in summer than in winter by 16.1 nmol/L (13.6–18.7), and in those in the highest versus the lowest category of education by 6.1 nmol/L (0.5–11.8), in BMI <25 kg/m2 versus BMI ≥35 kg/m2 by 8.2 nmol/L (4.0–12.3), and in the highest versus the lowest physical activity category by up to 9.5 nmol/L (2.9–16.1). Determinants of neonatal 25(OH)D levels were similar but also included maternal age, dairy intake, supplement use and 25(OH)D level.

CONCLUSION: This study suggests that vitamin D status of pregnant women and/or neonates might be improved through supplementation, adequate dairy intake, a move towards a healthy pre-pregnancy body weight, and participation in physical activity. Controlled studies are needed to determine the effectiveness of interventions aimed at these factors.

Key words

Pregnancy newborn vitamin D lifestyle epidemiology Canada 

Résumé

OBJECTIFS: Les données semblent indiquer que la vitamine D a un effet bénéfique sur la santé périnatale, mais un faible statut en vitamine D prévaut chez les femmes enceintes et les nouveau-nés. Nous avons voulu déterminer les facteurs associés au statut en vitamine D de mères en début de grossesse et de nouveau-nés.

MÉTHODE: L’étude a compris 1 635 femmes enceintes de Québec et de Halifax, au Canada, de 2002 à 2010. Le statut en vitamine D était fondé sur la concentration de 25-hydroxyvitamine D [25(OH)D], déterminée grâce à un immunoessai par chimiluminescence dans le sérum maternel prélevé à la durée médiane de 15 semaines de grossesse et dans le sérum du cordon ombilical des nouveau-nés à l’accouchement. Au milieu de leur grossesse, les femmes ont rempli un questionnaire donnant de l’information sur les déterminants potentiels.

RÉSULTATS: En tout, 44,8% des mères et 24,4% des nouveau-nés avaient des concentrations de 25(OH)D <50 nmol/L. Chez les mères, les concentrations moyennes ajustées (intervalle de confiance de 95%) de 25(OH)D étaient plus élevées de 16,1 nmol/L (13,6–18,7) l’été que l’hiver; plus élevées de 6,1 nmol/L (0,5–11,8) chez les femmes ayant le plus haut niveau d’instruction par rapport au plus bas; plus élevées de 8,2 nmol/L (4,0–12,3) chez les femmes ayant un IMC <25 kg/m2 contre un IMC ≥35 kg/m2; et pouvaient être plus élevées de 9,5 nmol/L (2,9–16,1) chez les femmes ayant le plus haut niveau d’activité physique par rapport au plus bas. Pour les concentrations de 25(OH)D chez les nouveau-nés, les déterminants étaient semblables aux déterminants maternels, mais incluaient aussi l’âge, l’apport en produits laitiers, l’utilisation de suppléments et la concentration de 25(OH)D des mères.

CONCLUSION: Notre étude indique que le statut en vitamine D des femmes enceintes et/ou des nouveau-nés pourrait être amélioré par la supplémentation, par un apport suffisant en produits laitiers, par un effort pour atteindre un poids-santé avant la grossesse et par la participation à l’activité physique. Il faudrait mener des études contrôlées pour déterminer l’efficacité des interventions ciblant ces facteurs.

Mots clés

grossesse nouveau-né vitamine D style de vie épidémiologie Canada 

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Copyright information

© The Canadian Public Health Association 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christy G. Woolcott
    • 1
  • Yves Giguère
    • 2
  • Hope A. Weiler
    • 3
  • Anne Spencer
    • 1
  • Jean-Claude Forest
    • 2
  • B. Anthony Armson
    • 4
  • Linda Dodds
    • 1
  1. 1.Perinatal Epidemiology Research Unit, Departments of Obstetrics & Gynaecology and PediatricsDalhousie University and IWK Health CentreHalifaxCanada
  2. 2.CHU de Québec Research Centre and Department of Molecular Biology, Medical Biochemistry and PathologyUniversité LavalQuebec CityCanada
  3. 3.School of Dietetics and Human NutritionMcGill UniversitySte. Anne de BellevueCanada
  4. 4.Department of Obstetrics & GynaecologyDalhousie University and IWK Health CentreHalifaxCanada

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