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Canadian Journal of Public Health

, Volume 107, Supplement 1, pp eS34–eS41 | Cite as

The food environment and diet quality of urban-dwelling older women and men: Assessing the moderating role of diet knowledge

  • Geneviève MercilleEmail author
  • Lucie Richard
  • Lise Gauvin
  • Yan Kestens
  • Bryna Shatenstein
  • Mark Daniel
  • Hélène Payette
Quantitative Research
  • 1 Downloads

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: The relationships between local food environments and dietary patterns are important for older adults and could be different in men and women. We examined associations between exposure to neighbourhood food sources and food consumption and the moderating role of diet knowledge separately among older women and men living in Montreal in 2003-2005 (n=722).

METHODS: The proportion of fast-food outlets relative to all restaurants (%FFO) and the proportion of healthy food stores relative to all stores (%HFS) were estimated for 500 m buffers around participants’ homes. Two dietary patterns, designated ”Western” and ”prudent”, reflecting lower- and higher-quality diets respectively, were identified from food frequency questionnaire data. The unique and interactive effects of diet knowledge and food-source exposure on diet scores were tested with separate linear regression models for women and men.

RESULTS: For men, greater %FFO exposure was related to lower prudent diet scores (ß = -0.18, p = 0.02), but no effect of %HFS exposure was observed and no interactions were statistically significant. For women, an inverse relationship between %FFO and prudent diet scores was strongest among those with low diet knowledge (ß=-0.22, p<0.01). No other associations were statistically significant.

CONCLUSION: Older men’s diet patterns may reflect unhealthy cues associated with fast-food outlets. Among women, diet knowledge potentiated both negative and positive relationships with the food environment. In the absence of consistent main effects of the food environment on diet scores, subgroup analysis is a promising avenue for research.

Key words

Diet older adults urban population food supply effect modifier 

Résumé

OBJECTIFS : Les liens entre les environnements alimentaires locaux et les habitudes alimentaires sont importants pour les personnes âgées et pourraient différer selon le sexe. Nous avons examiné séparément pour des femmes et des hommes âgés vivant à Montréal en 2003-2005 (n = 722) les associations entre l’exposition aux commerces alimentaires du quartier, la consommation d’aliments et le rôle modérateur des connaissances en nutrition.

MÉTHODE : Nous avons estimé la proportion de débits de restauration rapide (DRP) par rapport à l’ensemble des restaurants et la proportion de magasins d’alimentation pouvant offrir des aliments sains (MAS) par rapport à l’ensemble des magasins dans un rayon de 500 m autour du domicile des participants. Deux types d’habitudes alimentaires, qualifiées d’ « occidentales » et de « prudentes » pour indiquer les régimes de qualité inférieure et supérieure, respectivement, ont été cernés à partir des données de questionnaires sur la fréquence de consommation des produits alimentaires. Les effets uniques et interactifs des connaissances en nutrition et de l’exposition aux commerces alimentaires sur les scores des habitudes alimentaires ont été analysés selon des modèles de régression linéaire distincts selon le sexe.

RéSULTATS : Chez les hommes, un pourcentage supérieure d’exposition aux DRP était lié à des notes plus faibles pour le régime « prudent » (ß = -0,18, p = 0,02), mais nous n’avons observé aucun effet du pourcentage d’exposition aux MAS, et aucune interaction n’était significative. Chez les femmes, la relation inverse entre le %DRP et le régime « prudent » était la plus forte chez les participantes dont les connaissances en nutrition étaient faibles (ß = -0,22, p < 0,01). Aucune autre association n’était significative.

CONCLUSION : Les habitudes alimentaires des hommes peuvent s’expliquer par des repères malsains associés aux débits de restauration rapide. Chez les femmes, les connaissances en nutrition peuvent entraîner à la fois des relations négatives et positives avec l’environnement alimentaire. En l’absence d’effets principaux cohérents de l’environnement alimentaire sur les scores des habitudes alimentaires, l’analyse par sous-groupe est une piste de recherche prometteuse.

Mots Clés

régime alimentaire personne âgée population urbaine approvisionnement en nourriture effets modificateurs 

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Copyright information

© The Canadian Public Health Association 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Geneviève Mercille
    • 1
    Email author
  • Lucie Richard
    • 2
    • 3
  • Lise Gauvin
    • 1
    • 4
    • 5
  • Yan Kestens
    • 1
    • 4
  • Bryna Shatenstein
    • 6
    • 7
  • Mark Daniel
    • 8
    • 9
  • Hélène Payette
    • 10
    • 11
  1. 1.Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l’Université de Montréal (CRCHUM)MontréalCanada
  2. 2.Institut de recherche en santé publique de l’Université de Montréal (IRSPUM)MontréalCanada
  3. 3.Faculté des sciences infirmièresUniversité de MontréalMontréalCanada
  4. 4.Département de médecine sociale et préventive, École de santé publiqueUniversité de MontréalMontréalCanada
  5. 5.Centre de recherche Léa-Roback sur les inégalités sociales de santé de MontréalMontréalCanada
  6. 6.Département de nutritionUniversité de MontréalMontréalCanada
  7. 7.Centre de recherche, Institut universitaire de gériatrie de MontréalCentre intégré universitaire de santé et de services sociaux (CIUSSS) du Centre-Sud-de-l’Île-de-MontréalMontréalCanada
  8. 8.Centre for Population Health ResearchUniversity of South AustraliaAdelaideAustralia
  9. 9.Department of Medicine, St. Vincent’s HospitalThe University of MelbourneMelbourneAustralia
  10. 10.Département des sciences de la santé communautaire, Faculté de médecine et des sciences de la santéUniversité de SherbrookeSherbrookeCanada
  11. 11.Centre de recherche sur le vieillissementCIUSSS de l’Estrie-Centre hospitalier universitaire de SherbrookeSherbrookeCanada

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