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Canadian Journal of Public Health

, Volume 106, Issue 8, pp e496–e501 | Cite as

Investigation of anxiety and depression symptom co-morbidity in a community sample with type 2 diabetes: Associations with indicators of self-care

  • Kimberley J. SmithEmail author
  • Maxime Pedneault
  • Norbert Schmitz
Quantitative Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Ascertain the association of elevated co-occurring anxiety and depression symptoms, elevated anxiety symptoms alone or elevated depression symptoms alone with indicators of self-care behaviours in people with type 2 diabetes.

METHODS: Data from a community sample of 1,990 people diagnosed with type 2 diabetes for less than 10 years were assessed. All participants took part in a telephone interview. Questionnaires examined depression, anxiety, health, and indicators of self-care (physical activity, blood glucose monitoring, diet and smoking). Data were assessed with cross tabulations, ANOVA and logistic regression.

RESULTS: Groups who met criteria for elevated co-occurring anxiety and depression symptoms, elevated anxiety symptoms and elevated depression symptoms were more likely to report poor eating habits. Meeting criteria for either elevated depression symptoms (with and without anxiety) was also associated with an increased likelihood of not meeting physical activity recommendations. Those people with elevated depression and anxiety scores were more likely to be a current smoker.

CONCLUSIONS: Those people who meet criteria for elevated anxiety and/or depression symptoms are less likely to report adhering to self-care recommendations. These associations are particularly marked in those people with elevated depression symptoms with or without co-occurring anxiety symptoms. There is a lot of evidence emphasising the importance of monitoring depressive symptoms in people with diabetes. Our results add to this, indicating that adherence to self-care recommendations should be carefully monitored in people with depression and anxiety symptoms.

Keywords

Depression anxiety type 2 diabetes 

Résumé

OBJECTIFS : Établir avec précision l’association entre les symptômes élevés d’anxiété et de dépression concomitantes, les symptômes élevés d’anxiété seule ou les symptômes élevés de dépression seule et les indicateurs d’autosoins chez les personnes atteintes du diabète de type 2.

MÉTHODE : Nous avons analysé les données d’un échantillon communautaire de 1 990 personnes ayant un diagnostic de diabète de type 2 depuis moins de 10 ans. Les participants se sont prêtés à un entretien téléphonique. Les questionnaires ont porté sur la dépression, l’anxiété, la santé et les indicateurs d’autosoins (activité physique, surveillance de la glycémie, régime et tabagisme). Les données ont été évaluées à l’aide de tabulations en croix, d’analyses de la variance et d’analyses de régression logistique.

RÉSULTATS : Les groupes qui répondaient aux critères des symptômes élevés d’anxiété et de dépression concomitantes, des symptômes élevés d’anxiété et des symptômes élevés de dépression étaient plus susceptibles de déclarer avoir de mauvaises habitudes alimentaires. Le fait de répondre aux critères des symptômes élevés de dépression (avec et sans anxiété) était également associé à la probabilité accrue de ne pas respecter les recommandations d’activité physique. Les sujets dont les scores de dépression et d’anxiété étaient élevés étaient plus susceptibles d’être des fumeurs actuels.

CONCLUSIONS : Les personnes qui répondent aux critères des symptômes élevés d’anxiété et/ou de dépression sont moins susceptibles de déclarer qu’elles se conforment aux recommandations d’autosoins. Ces associations sont particulièrement prononcées chez les sujets ayant des symptômes élevés de dépression, avec ou sans symptômes d’anxiété concomitante. De nombreuses données probantes soulignent l’importance de contrôler les symptômes dépressifs chez les diabétiques. Nos résultats vont dans le même sens: la conformité aux recommandations d’autosoins devrait être soigneusement surveillée chez les personnes présentant des symptômes de dépression et d’anxiété.

Mots Clés

dépression anxiété diabète de type 2 

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Copyright information

© The Canadian Public Health Association 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kimberley J. Smith
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Maxime Pedneault
    • 3
  • Norbert Schmitz
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Institute of Health, Environment and SocietiesBrunel University London, Kingston LaneUxbridgeUK
  2. 2.Department of Life SciencesBrunel University LondonUxbridgeUK
  3. 3.Douglas Mental Health University InstituteMontrealCanada
  4. 4.Department of PsychiatryMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada
  5. 5.Department of Epidemiology and BiostatisticsMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada

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