Samples of dried shea fruit pulp were collected from tree populations in Mali, Burkina Faso, northern Cameroon, and Uganda. A variety of analytical methods was used to measure total soluble solids (TSS), crude protein, and mineral contents. The results demonstrate that shea fruits are a rich source of sugars, protein, calcium, and potassium during the “hungry season”, when food stores run low and the energy-intensive work of preparing land for planting must be done. A companion survey of indigenous shea tree and fruit classification was carried out in study area villages. Indigenous savanna inhabitants, especially men, emphasize the importance of fruit pulp taste, while women emphasize the butter content of the nuts. Shea fruits have greater importance to the inhabitants of the drier savannas such as the Sahel, where shea fruits have been shown to have higher nutritional values. While there is currently much international interest in developing the potential of shea butter production in Africa, the role of the fruit pulp in the local diet needs to be taken into consideration in development programs.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Abou-Jawdah, Y., A. Karakashian, H. Sobh, M. Martini, andI. Lee. 2002. An epidemic of almond witches’-broom in Lebanon: Classification and phylogenetic relationships of the associated phytoplasma. Plant Disease 86:477–484.
AOAC. 2002. Protein in fruit products. Official methods of analysis of AOAC international, 16th Ed., Vol. II. AOAC International, Gaithersburg, MD, Chap. 37, p. 10.
Bergeret, A., andJ. C. Ribot. 1990. L’Arbre nourricier en pays sahélien. Editions de la Maison des Sciences de l’Homme, Paris, 225 pp.
Blench, R. 2001. Trees on the march: The dispersal of economic trees in the prehistory of West-Central Africa. ODI, Safa Conference, Cambridge, U.K., May 26, 2000, 13 pp.
Boffa, J-M., G. Yameogo, P. Nikiema, andJ. B. Taonda. 1996. What future for the shea tree? Agroforestry Today 8(4):5–9.
Booth, F. E. M., andG. E. Wickens. 1988. Nontimber uses of selected arid zone trees and shrubs in Africa. FAO Conservation Guide 19, ISBN 92-5–102745-5, 12 pp.
Collinson, C., andA. Zewdie-Bosuener. 1999. Shea butter markets: Their implications for Ghanaian shea butter processors and exporters. Project A0772, Report No. 2403, 20 pp.
Hall, J. B., D. P. Aebischer, H. F. Tomlinson, E. Osei-Amaning, andJ. R. Hindle. 1996.Vitellaria paradoxa: A monograph. School of Agricultural and Forest Sciences, University of Wales, Bangor, U.K., 105 pp.
Hanlon, E. A. 1992a. Determination of K, Ca, and Mg in plants by atomic absorption techniques. Pages in C. O. Plank, ed., Plant analysis reference procedures for Southern Region of the U.S. Cooperative Services Bulletin 368. University of Georgia, Athens.
—. 1992b. Determination of total Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn in plants by atomic absorption techniques. Pages 49–51 in C. O. Plank, ed., Plant analysis reference procedures for Southern Region of the U.S. Cooperative Services Bulletin 368. University of Georgia, Athens.
ICRAF. 1997. Agroforestry in the Sahel of West Africa. ICRAF bulletin, Bamako, Mali, 12 pp.
Isaac, R. A., andW. C. Johnson. 1976. Determination of total nitrogen in plant tissue. Journal of the Association of Analytical Chemists 59:98–100.
Lamien, N., A. Sidibe, andJ. Bayala. 1996. The joy of cooking: recipes for the success of shea tree. Agroforestry Today Oct-Dec 1996:10–11.
Lipp, M., C. Simoneau, F. Ulberth, and E. Anklam. 1999. Devising analytical methods for the determination of cocoa butter and other vegetable fats in chocolate with the aim of checking compliance with existing community labeling. Food Products Unit, European Commission Joint Research Center, Final Report, Contract No. 12673–97-02 AICA ISPB, 10 pp.
Lovett, P. N., andN. Haq. 2000. Evidence for an thropic selection of the Shea nut treeVitellaria paradoxa). Agroforestry Systems 48:293–304.
Maranz, S., andZ. Wiesman. 2003. Evidence for indigenous selection and distribution of the shea tree,Vitellaria paradoxa, and its potential significance to prevailing parkland savanna tree patterns in subSaharan Africa north of the equator. Journal of Biogeography 30(10):1505–1516.
Maranz, S., Z. Wiesman, J. Bisgaard, andG. Bianchi. 2004. Germplasm resources ofVitellaria paradoxa based on variations in fat composition across the species distribution range. Agroforestry Systems 60(l):71–76.
Martin, F. W.,C. W. Campbell, andR. M. Ruberte. 1987. Perennial edible fruits of the Tropics: An inventory. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook No. 642, 252 pp.
Mauny, R. 1953. Notes historiques autour des principales plantes cultivées d’Afrique Occidentale. Bulletin de l’Institut Fondamental d’Afrique Noire (IFAN) 15:684–730.
Neumann, K., S. Kahlheber, andD. Uebel. 1998. Remains of woody plants from Saouga, a medieval West African village. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 7:57–77.
Neuwinger, H. D. 1996. African ethnobotany: Poisons and drugs. Chapman and Hall, Weinheim, Germany.
NEVO Table. 1996. Nevo Foundation, Netherlands Nutritional Center, cited in The Fruit Pages, http:// www.thefruitpages.com.
Plenderleith, K., andN. Brown. 2000.Baillonella toxisperma: A state of knowledge study. Oxford Forestry Institute, Department of Plant Sciences, Oxford University, Oxford, U.K., 39 pp.
Ruyssen, B. 1957. Le karité au Soudan, Premiere Partie, Aire géographique du karité en Afrique et au Soudan. L’Agronomie Tropicale XI(2): 143–171.
Saint Sauveur, A. (de). 1999. Indigenous management practices of farmed parklands. Pages 61–78 in Teklehaimanot, Z., ed., Improved management of agroforestry parkland systems in sub-saharan Africa. First Annual Report, 1 October 1998-30 September 1999.School of Agricultural and Forest Sciences, University of Wales, Bangor, U.K.
Salle, G., A. Boussin, A. Raynal-Roques, andF. Brunck. 1991. Le karité: état de nos connaissances et perspectives de recherche. Pages 427–439 in Riedacker, A., E. Dreyer, C. Pafadnam, H. Joly, and G. Bory, eds., Physiologie des arbres et arbustes en zones arides et semi-arides. John Libbey Eurotext, Groupe d’Etude de l’Arbre, Paris.
StatSoft, Inc. 2002. STATISTICA for Windows. Tulsa, OK: StatSoft, Inc., 2300 E. 14th St., Tulsa, OK, 74104, www.statsoft.com.
Storgaard, S. 2000. New vegetable fats. Sweetec 2(4/00):16–21.
Teklehaimanot, Z. 1997. Improved management of agroforestry parkland systems in sub-saharan Africa. Project proposal submitted to INCO-DC European Commission, 11 September 1997. School of Agricultural and Forest Sciences, University of Wales, Bangor, U.K.
Thiongo, M. K., S. Kingori, andH. Jaenicke. 2002. The taste of the wild: Variation in the nutritional quality of manila fruits and opportunities for domestication. Acta Horticulturae 575:237–244.
Von Maydell, H. J. 1990. Arbres et arbustes du Sahel: Leurs caracteristiques et leurs utilisations. Margraf, Weikersheim, Germany, 531 pp.
An erratum to this article is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1663/0013-0001(2005)059[0209:CHMMAO]2.0.CO;2.
About this article
Cite this article
Maranz, S., Kpikpi, W., Wiesman, Z. et al. Nutritional values and indigenous preferences for Shea Fruits(vitellaria paradoxa C.F. Gaertn. F.) in African Agroforestry Parklands. Econ Bot 58, 588–600 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1663/0013-0001(2004)058[0588:NVAIPF]2.0.CO;2
- shea butter
- fruit pulp nutritional value
- parkland agroforestry