Exosomes in bladder cancer: novel biomarkers and targets

外泌体与膀胱癌: 新的生物标志物和靶点

Abstract

Exosomes are nanometer-sized vesicles that contain various types of biologically active components, including proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and lipids, which vary with the type and physiological state of the cell. In recent years, several studies have showed that exosomes can provide new non-invasive diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in patients affected by cancers, including bladder cancer (BC), and the lipid bilayer membrane structure makes exosomes as promising delivery vehicles for therapeutic applications. Exosomes have the characteristics of high abundance, high stability, tissue specificity, and wide distribution in body fluids, and are secreted as various types by cells in different states, thereby possessing great potential as biomarkers for BC. Herein, we briefly summarize the functions and roles of exosomes in the occurrence and development of BC and the current progress of research on exosomes in BC, while focusing on potential clinical applications of the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of BC.

概要

外泌体是纳米大小的囊泡, 包含蛋白质、核酸、碳水化合物和脂质等各种生物活性成分, 这些成分会随细胞的类型和生理状态而变化。近年来, 一些研究表明不但外泌体可以为包括膀胱癌在内的多种肿瘤提供新的无创性诊断和预后生物标志物, 而且外泌体脂质双层膜结构可使其成为治疗应用的理想载体。外泌体具有丰度高、稳定性好、组织特异性强, 以及在体液中广泛分布等特点, 且可以由在不同状态下的多种细胞所分泌。因此, 外泌体具有作为膀胱癌诊断和预后生物标志物的巨大潜力。本文就外泌体在膀胱癌发生发展中的作用及其研究现状进行综述, 并聚焦于外泌体在膀胱癌诊断、治疗和预后中的临床应用。

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Acknowledgments

The present work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 8157100782), the Natural Science Research in Universities of Anhui Province (No. KJ2018A0209), the Foundation for Excellent Young Teachers of Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang Social Development Guidance Project (No. FZ2019038), the Research and Practice Innovation Program for Graduate Students of Jiangsu Province (No. KYCX20_3089), and the Experimental Animal Center of Jiangsu University, China.

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Correspondence to Dexin Yu or Zhaofeng Liang.

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Author contributions

Hao GENG, Qingchen ZHOU, and Zhaofeng LIANG designed research and wrote the paper. Wenhao GUO, Ling LU, Liangkuan BI, Yi WANG, and Jie MIN participated in data collection and analysis. Dexin YU and Zhaofeng LIANG participated in the writing and revisions. All authors have read and approved the final manuscript.

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Hao GENG, Qingchen ZHOU, Wenhao GUO, Ling LU, Liangkuan BI, Yi WANG, Jie MIN, Dexin YU, and Zhaofeng LIANG declare that they have no conflict of interest.

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

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Geng, H., Zhou, Q., Guo, W. et al. Exosomes in bladder cancer: novel biomarkers and targets. J. Zhejiang Univ. Sci. B 22, 341–347 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1631/jzus.B2000711

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Key words

  • Exosome
  • Bladder cancer
  • Function
  • Clinical application
  • Biomarker

关键词

  • 外泌体
  • 膀胱癌
  • 功能
  • 临床应用
  • 生物标志物