In order to reveal the mechanism of silicon (Si) fertilizer in improving nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) nutrient availability in paddy soil, we designed a series of soil culture experiments by combining application of varying Si fertilizer concentrations with fixed N and P fertilizer concentrations. Following the recommendations of fertilizer manufacturers and local farmers, we applied Si in concentrations of 0, 5.2, 10.4, 15.6, and 20.8 µg/kg. At each concentration of added Si, the availability of soil N and P nutrients, soil microbial activity, numbers of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and P-decomposing bacteria which means that the organic P is decomposed into inorganic nutrients which can be absorbed and utilized by plants, and urease and phosphatase activity first increased, and then decreased, as Si was added to the soil. These indicators reached their highest levels with a Si application rate of 15.6 µg/kg, showing values respectively 19.78%, 105.09%, 8.34%, 73.12%, 130.36%, 28.12%, and 20.15% higher than those of the controls. Appropriate Si application (10.4 to 15.6 µg/kg) could significantly increase the richness of the soil microbial community involved in cycling of N and P nutrients in the soil. When the Si application rate was 15.6 µg/kg, parameters for characterizing microbial abundance such as sequence numbers, operational taxonomic unit (OTU) number, and correlation indices of microbial community richness such as Chao1 index, the adaptive coherence estimator (ACE) index, Shannon index, and Simpson index all reached maximum values, with amounts increased by 14.46%, 10.01%, 23.80%, 30.54%, 0.18%, and 2.64%, respectively, compared with the control group. There is also a good correlation between N and P mineralization and addition of Si fertilizer. The correlation coefficients between the ratio of available P/total P (AP/TP) and the number of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, AP/TP and acid phosphatase activity (AcPA), AP/TP and the Shannon index, the ratio of available N/total amount of N (AN/TN) and the number of ammoniated bacteria, and AN/TN and AcPA were 0.9290, 0.9508, 0.9202, 0.9140, and 0.9366, respectively. In summary, these results revealed that enhancement of soil microbial community structure diversity and soil microbial activity by appropriate application of Si is the key ecological mechanism by which application of Si fertilizer improves N and P nutrient availability.
发现添加适量的硅养分可有效地提高稻田土壤N和P养分的有效性, 其核心生态机制是由于适量硅养分的添加可显著增加稻田土壤的土壤微生物活性, 氨化细菌和解磷菌的数量, 脲酶和磷酸酶的活性以及与N和P养分循环有关的微生物群落群落, 进而促进土壤N和P养分土壤养分矿化.
设计了一系列不同硅肥浓度和固定氮磷肥配合施用的土培试验, 施硅设置为五个梯度:0, 5.2, 10.4, 15.6和20.8 µg/kg. 在25 ℃培养一个月, 分析收获后土壤有效态N和P的含量, 土壤微生物活性, 氨化细菌和解磷菌的数量, 脲酶和磷酸酶的活性以及与土壤微生物群落结构多样性, 最后统计分析硅的添加对水稻土N和P养分有效性, 土壤微生物活性, 氨化细菌和解磷菌的数量, 脲酶和磷酸酶的活性以及与土壤微生物群落结构多样性的影响及其相互关系.
适量硅养分的添加可显著增加稻田土壤的土壤微生物活性, 氨化细菌和解磷菌的数量, 脲酶和磷酸酶的活性以及与N和P养分循环有关的微生物群落群落, 进而促进N和P养分土壤养分矿化. 当硅施用量为15.6µg/kg时, 土壤N和P养分的有效性达到最大值, 同时土壤微生物活性, 氨化细菌和解磷菌的数量, 脲酶和磷酸酶的活性以及与N和P养分循环有关的微生物群落群落也均达到最高水平. 另外, 土壤速效磷比例(有效磷/总磷(AP/TP))与氨化细菌数, AP/TP和酸性磷酸酶活性, AP/TP和Shannon指数, 速效氮比例(有效氮/总氮(AN/TN))与氨化细菌数, AN/TN与酸性磷酸酶活性的相关系数分别为0.9290, 0.9508, 0.9202, 0.9140, 0.9366. 综上所述, 适当补充硅养分可提高稻田土壤N和P养分有效性, 有助于提高稻田土壤N和P养分的水稻利用效率.
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We gratefully acknowledge support for this research from the National Key Research and Development Project of China (No. 2016YFD0200800) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41571226).
Yuqi LIANG contributed to data analysis and writing of the manuscript. Min LIAO and Xiaomei XIE contributed to study design, data analysis, and writing and editing of the manuscript. Yuqi LIANG, Zhiping FANG, Jiawen GUO, Xiaomei XIE, and Changxu XU carried out the experimental work. All authors have read and approved the final manuscript and, therefore, have full access to all the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity and security of the data.
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Yuqi LIANG, Min LIAO, Zhiping FANG, Jiawen GUO, Xiaomei XIE, and Changxu XU declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
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Liang, Y., Liao, M., Fang, Z. et al. How silicon fertilizer improves nitrogen and phosphorus nutrient availability in paddy soil?. J. Zhejiang Univ. Sci. B 22, 521–532 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1631/jzus.B2000708
- Paddy soil
- Nitrogen and phosphorus nutrient availability
- Microbial community structure nutrient