Nutritional and microbiological evaluations of chocolate-coated Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) fruit for commercial use

Article

Abstract

In recent years, China has become an increasingly important and the largest chestnut producer in the world. This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional value and microbiological quality of the roasted freeze-dried Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) (RFDC) coated with dark chocolate (DCC) and milk chocolate (MCC) for industrial use and commercial consumption. Chocolate coating significantly improved the nutritional value of chestnut. RFDC had high levels of starch (66.23%) and fibers (3.85%) while DCC and MCC contained significantly high amounts of sucrose, protein, fat and minerals. Furthermore, the protein content doubled in MCC rather than in DCC. This could be attributed to the different formulations in the two products. Milk powder and whey protein constituted the source of protein in MCC while cocoa powder added to MCC formulation constituted an additional source of minerals. The amino acid profile showed differences in amino acid composition related to the sample’s protein content, indicating their good nutritional quality. The moisture contents in all RFDC, DCC and MCC were suitable for industrial processing. These results provide information about the additional nutrients of chocolate-coated chestnut and confirm that the product is an interesting nutritional food. The combination of freeze-drying and chocolate-coating generally results in greater reductions on microbiological loads, extending shelf life of harvested chestnut for commercial application. This is an alternative strategy to add value to chestnut, minimizing the significant losses in harvested fruits and providing a wider range of choices of new products to the consumer disposal.

Key words

Chestnut Coating Dark chocolate Milk chocolate Nutritional qualities Microbiological analysis 

CLC number

S664.2 

References

  1. AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists), 1990. Official Methods of Analysis, 15th Ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists Inc., Arlington, p.1096–1097.Google Scholar
  2. AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists), 1997. Official Methods of Analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemists Inc., Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  3. Attanasio, G., Cinquanta, L., Albanese, D., Matteo, M.D., 2004. Effects of drying temperatures on physico-chemical properties of dried and rehydrated chestnuts (Castanea sativa). Food Chemistry, 88(4):583–590. [doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.01.071]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bassi, D., Marangoni, B., 1984. Contributo allo studio varietale del castagno da fruto (Castanea sativa Mill). caratteri biometrici e analisi chimico-fisiche dei frutti. Rivista di Frutticoltura, 6:43–46.Google Scholar
  5. Baylis, C.L., MacPhee, S., Robinson, A.J., Griffiths, R., Lilley, K., Betts, R.P., 2004. Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7, O111:H-and O26:H11 in artificially contaminated chocolate and confectionery products. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 96(1): 35–48. [doi:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2004.03.007]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bergougnoux, F., 1978. Conservation, Transformation et Utilisation des Châtaignes et Marrons. Institut National de Vulgarisation pour les Fruits, Légumes et Champignons, Paris.Google Scholar
  7. Borges, O., Gonçalves, B., Carvalho, J.L., Correia, P., Silva, A.P., 2008. Nutritional quality of chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) cultivars from Portugal. Food Chemistry, 106(3):976–984. [doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.07.011]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bounous, G., 2002. Inventory of Chestnut Research, Germplasm and References. FAO, Rome, Italy.Google Scholar
  9. Bruinsma, K., Taren, D.L., 1999. Chocolate: food or drug? Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 99(10): 1249–1256. [doi:10.1016/S0002-8223(99)00307-7]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Campos, C.M., Benedet, T.H.D., 1994. Aceitabilidade de bombons (sabor passas ao rum)—recheio adicionado de proteínas de soja. Boletim da Sociedade Brasileira Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos, 28:113–117.Google Scholar
  11. Chinese Standard GB/T 5009.3-2003. Inspection of Grain and Oilseeds: Methods for Determination of Moisture in Foods. Standards Press of China, Beijing, China.Google Scholar
  12. Chinese Standard GB/T 5009.4-2003. Inspection of Grain and Oilseeds: Methods for Determination of Ash in Foods. Standards Press of China, Beijing, China.Google Scholar
  13. Chinese Standard GB/T 5009.5-2003. Inspection of Grain and Oilseeds: Methods for Determination of Crude Protein in Foods. Standards Press of China, Beijing, China.Google Scholar
  14. Chinese Standard GB/T 5009.6-2003. Inspection of Grain and Oilseeds: Methods for Determination of Crude Fat in Foods. Standards Press of China, Beijing, China.Google Scholar
  15. Chinese Standard GB/T 5009.10-2003. Inspection of Grain and Oilseeds: Methods for Determination of Crude Fiber in Foods. Standards Press of China, Beijing, China.Google Scholar
  16. Chinese National Standard GB 9678.2-2003. Specifications for Hygienic Standard for Chocolate and Chocolate Products. Standards Press of China, Beijing, China.Google Scholar
  17. CMANCA (Chocolate Manufactures Association National Confectioners Association), 1996. US Statistics. Available at: http://www.candyusa.org
  18. D’Aoust, J.Y., 1977. Salmonella and the chocolate industry: a review. Journal of Food Protection, 40:718–727.Google Scholar
  19. Desmaison, A.M., Adrian, J., 1986. La place de la châtaigne en alimentation. Medecine et Nutrition, 22(3):174–180.Google Scholar
  20. Duncan, D.B., 1955. Multiple range and multiple F tests. Biometrics, 11(1):1–42. [doi:10.2307/3001478]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. FAOSTAT (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Statistical Databases), 2005. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Statistical Databases—Agriculture Data, Agricultural Production, Major Food And Agricultural Commodities and Producers. FAO Rome, Italy. Available at: http://www.fao.org/es/ess/top/commodity.html?lang=en&item=220&year=2005 Google Scholar
  22. FAO/WHO (Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization), 1990. Protein Quality Evaluation. Report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.Google Scholar
  23. Goepfert, J.M., 1980. Microbial Ecology of Foods. International Commission of Microbiological Specification for Foods, Academic Press, New York, USA, p.624.Google Scholar
  24. Gounga, M.E., Xu, S.Y., Wang, Z., 2007a. Sensory attributes of freshly roasted and roasted freeze-dried Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) coated with whey protein isolated-pullulan edible coating. International Journal of Agriculture Research, 2(11):959–964.Google Scholar
  25. Gounga, M.E., Xu, S.Y., Wang, Z., 2007b. Application of a Double Edible Coating on Chinese Chestnut (Castanea mollissima). The 7th International Conference of Food Science and Technology. Nov. 12–15, Wuxi, China.Google Scholar
  26. Gounga, M.E., Xu, S.Y., Wang, Z., 2007c. Whey protein isolate-based edible films as affected by protein concentration, glycerol ratio and pullulan addition in film formation. Journal of Food Engineering, 83(4):521–530. [doi:10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2007.04.008]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gounga, M.E., Xu, S.Y., Wang, Z., Yang, W.G., 2008. Effect of whey protein isolate-pullulan edible coatings on the quality and shelf-life of freshly roasted and freeze-dried Chinese chestnut. Journal of Food Science, 73(4):151–161. [doi:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2008.00694.x]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Koburger, I.A., 1968. An antibiotic-containing medium for the enumeration of fungi in foods. Bacteriology Proceedings, 13:A73.Google Scholar
  29. Kotzekidou, P., Giannakidis, P., Boulamatsis, A., 2008. Antimicrobial activity of some plant extracts and essential oils against food borne pathogens in vitro and on the fate of inoculated pathogens in chocolate. Lebensmittel Wissenschaft und Technologie, Food Science and Technology, 41(1):119–127.Google Scholar
  30. Lamelas, E., 2000. Optimizacion do Proceso de Hidrolise de Amidon de Castana Mediante un Proceso Simultaneo de Lucuefacion-Sacarificacion. Memoria Mecanografiada del Proyecto Fin de Carrera de Ingeniera Tecnica Agricola, Especialidad Industrias Agroalimentarias, Facultad de Ciencias, Ourense.Google Scholar
  31. Macdiarmid, J.I., Hetherington, M.M., 1995. Mood modulation by food: an exploration of affected and cravings in “chocolate addicts”. Brazilian Journal of Clinical Psychology, 34:129–138.Google Scholar
  32. Manafi, M., 2003. Media for Detection and Enumeration of Total Enterobacteriaceae, Coliform and Escherichia coli from Water and Foods. In: Corry, J.E.L., Curtis, G.D.W., Baird, R.M. (Eds.), Handbook of Culture Media for Food Microbiology-Progress in Industrial Microbiology, Vol. 37. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, p.167–192. [doi:10.1016/S0079-6352(03)80015-2]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Míguelez, J.D.L.M., Bernárdez, M.M., Queijeiro, J.M.G., 2004. Composition of varieties of chestnuts from Galicia (Spain). Food Chemistry, 84(3):401–404. [doi:10.1016/ S0308-8146(03)00249-8]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mursu, J., Voutilainen, S., Nurmi, T., Rissanen, H.T., Virtanen, K.J., Kaikkonen, J., Nyyssönen, K., Salonen, T.J., 2004. Dark chocolate consumption increases HDL cholesterol concentration and chocolate fatty acids may inhibit lipid peroxidation in healthy humans. Free Radical Biology & Medicine, 37(9):1351–1359. [doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed. 2004.06.002]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Pedro, N.A.R., de Oliveira, E., Cadore, S., 2006. Study of the mineral content of chocolate flavoured beverages. Food Chemistry, 95(1):94–100. [doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2004. 12.021]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Pertwee, R.G., 1992. In Vivo Interactions between Psychotropic Cannabinoids and Other Drugs Involving Central and Peripheral Neurochemical Mediators. In: Murphy, L., Bartke, A. (Eds.), Marijuana/Cannabinoids: Neurobiology and Neurophysiology. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla, p.165–218.Google Scholar
  37. Rodin, J., Mancuso, J., Granger, J., Nelbach, E., 1991. Food cravings in relation to body mass index, restraint and estradiol levels: a repeated measures study in healthy women. Appetite, 17(3):177–185. [doi:10.1016/0195-66 63(91)90020-S]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Tamminga, S.K., Beumer, R.R., Kampelmacher, E.H., van Leusden, F.M., 1977. Survival of Salmonella eastbourne and Salmonella typhimurium in milk chocolate prepared with artificially contaminated milk powder. Journal of Hygiene Cambridge, 79:333–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Torelm, I., Danielsson, R., 1998. Variations in major nutrients and minerals in Swedish foods: a multivariate multifactorial approach to the effects of season, region and chain. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 11(1):11–31. [doi:10.1006/jfca.1998.0561]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Torres-Pereira Gaspar, J.M., Sequeira, C.A., Torres de Castro, L., 1992. Estudo Sobre a Composiçao Química e Valor Nutritivo da Castanha, Visando a Sua Transformaçao Agro-industrial. Universidade de Trâs-os-montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real.Google Scholar
  41. Vossen, P., 2000. Chestnut Culture in California. University of California Cooperative Extension Farm Advisor, Soroma Country.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Zhejiang University and Springer-Verlag GmbH 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Food Science & Technology School of Food Science & TechnologyJiangnan UniversityWuxiChina

Personalised recommendations