Advertisement

Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B

, Volume 9, Issue 3, pp 197–209 | Cite as

Mechanisms and assessment of water eutrophication

  • Xiao-e Yang
  • Xiang Wu
  • Hu-lin Hao
  • Zhen-li He
Review

Abstract

Water eutrophication has become a worldwide environmental problem in recent years, and understanding the mechanisms of water eutrophication will help for prevention and remediation of water eutrophication. In this paper, recent advances in current status and major mechanisms of water eutrophication, assessment and evaluation criteria, and the influencing factors were reviewed. Water eutrophication in lakes, reservoirs, estuaries and rivers is widespread all over the world and the severity is increasing, especially in the developing countries like China. The assessment of water eutrophication has been advanced from simple individual parameters like total phosphorus, total nitrogen, etc., to comprehensive indexes like total nutrient status index. The major influencing factors on water eutrophication include nutrient enrichment, hydrodynamics, environmental factors such as temperature, salinity, carbon dioxide, element balance, etc., and microbial and biodiversity. The occurrence of water eutrophication is actually a complex function of all the possible influencing factors. The mechanisms of algal blooming are not fully understood and need to be further investigated.

Key words

Eutrophication mechanisms Influencing factors Nutrient enrichment Assessment criterion Water quality 

CLC number

X52 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alongi, D.M., Chong, V.C., Dixon, P., Sasekumar, A., Tirendi, F., 2003. The influence of fish cage aquaculture on pelagic carbon flow and water chemistry in tidally dominated mangrove estuaries of peninsular Malaysia. Marine Environmental Research, 55(4):313–333. [doi:10.1016/S0141-1136(02)00276-3]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andersen, J.H., Conley, D.J., Hedal, S., 2004. Palaeoecology, reference conditions and classification of ecological status: The EU Water Framework Directive in practice. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 49(4):283–290. [doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2004.04.014]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barbieri, A., Simona, M., 2001. Trophic evolution of Lake Lugano related to external load reduction: Changes in phosphorus and nitrogen as well as oxygen balance and biological parameters. Lakes and Reservoirs Research and Management, 6(1):37–47. [doi:10.1046/j.1440-1770.2001.00120.x]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bishop, M.J., Powers, S.P., Porter, H.J., Peterson, C.H., 2006. Benthic biological effects of seasonal hypoxia in a eutrophic estuary predate rapid coastal development. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science, 70(3):415–422. [doi:10.1016/j.ecss.2006.06.031]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bledsoe, E.L., Phlips, E.J., Jett, C.E., Donnelly, K.A., 2004. The relationships among 336 phytoplankton biomass, nutrient loading and hydrodynamics in an inner-shelf estuary. Ophelia, 58(1):29–47.Google Scholar
  6. Burkholder, J.M., Tomasko, D.A., Touchette, B.W., 2007. Seagrasses and eutrophication. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 350(1–2):46–72. [doi:10.1016/j.jembe.2007.06.024]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cai, J.B., Ding, X.F., Peng, H.Y., Chang, H.Q., Yang, X.E., 2007. Effects of environmental factors and submerged aquatic plants on phosphorus release from the sediment. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 21(2):151–154 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  8. Carmichael, W.W., 2001. Health effects of toxin-producing Cyanobacteria: “The CyanoHABs”. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 7(5):1393–1407. [doi:10.1080/20018091095087]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chang, H.Q., Yang, X.E., Fang, Y.Y., Pu, P.M., Li, Z.K., 2005. Effects on nutrient of eutrophicated water by Elodea muttallii and immobilized bacteria. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 19(3):114–117 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  10. Chang, H.Q., Yang, X.E., Fang, Y.Y., Pu, P.M., Li, Z.K., Rengel, Z., 2006. In-situ nitrogen removal from the entrophic water by microbial-integrated system. Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B, 7(7):521–531. [doi:10.1631/jzus.2006.B0521]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cheng, X.Y., Li, S.J., 2006. An analysis on the evolvement processes of lake eutrophication and their characteristics of the typical lakes in the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River. Chinese Science Bulletin, 51(13): 1603–1613. [doi:10.1007/s11434-006-2005-4]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. CNEPA (Environmental Protection Agency of China), 2002. Environmental Quality Standard for Surface Water. GB 3838-2002. http://www.cc.ln.gov.cn/lncj./shownews.asp?
  13. Colijn, F., Hesse, K.J., Ladwig, N., Tillmann, U., Vadstein, O., Olsen, Y., 2002. Effects of the largescale uncontrolled fertilization process along the continental coastal North Sea. Hydrobiologia, 484(1–3):133–148. [doi:10.1023/A:1021361206529]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cloern, J.E., 2001. Our evolving conceptual modle of the coastal eutrophication 350 problem. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 210:223–253. [doi:10.3354/meps210223]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dauvin, J.C., Ruellet, T., Desroy, N., Janson, A.L., 2007. The ecological quality status of the Bay of Seine and the Seine estuary: Use of biotic indices. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 55(1–6):241–257. [doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2006.04.010]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. de Villiers, S., 2007. The deteriorating nutrient status of the Berg River, South Africa. Water SA, 33(5):659–664.Google Scholar
  17. Deegan, L.A., Wright, A., Ayvazian, S.G., Finn, J.T., Golden, H., Merson, R.R., Harrison, J., 2002. Nitrogen loading alters seagrass ecosystem structure and support of higher tropic levels. Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 12(2):193–212. [doi:10.1002/aqc.490]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dell’Anno, A., Mei, M.L., Pusceddu, A., Danovaro, R., 2002. Assessing the trophic state and eutrophication of coastal marine systems: A new approach based on the biochemical composition of sediment organic matter. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 44(7):611–622. [doi:10.1016/S0025-326X(01)00302-2]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fang, Y.Y., Yang, X.E., Pu, P.M., Chang, H.Q., Ding, X.F., 2004. Water eutrophiocation in Li-Yang Reservoir and its ecological remediation countermeasures. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 18(6):183–186 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  20. Garg, J., Garg, H.K., Garg, J., 2002. Nutrient loading and its consequences in a lake ecosystem. Tropical Ecology, 43(2):355–358.Google Scholar
  21. Gowen, T.R.J., Stewart, B.M., 2005. The Irish Sea: Nutrient status and phytoplankton. Journal of Sea Research, 54(1):36–50. [doi:10.1016/j.seares.2005.02.003]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Guo, H.C., Sun, Y.F., 2002. Characteristic analysis and control strategies for the eutrophicated problem of the Lake Dianchi. Progress in Geography, 21(5):500–506 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  23. Hodgkiss, I.J., Lu, S.H., 2004. The effects of nutrients and their ratios on phytoplankton aboundance in Junk Bay, Hong Kong. Hydrobiologia, 512(1–3):215–229. [doi:10.1023/B:HYDR.0000020330.37366.e5]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Howarth, R.W., Swaney, D.P., Butler, T.J., Marino, R., 2000. Climatic control on eutrophication of the Hudson River estuary. Ecosystems, 3(2):210–215. [doi:10.1007/s100210000020]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Imteaz, M.A., Asaeda, T., Lockington, D.A., 2003. Modelling the effects of inflow parameters on lake water quality. Environmental Modeling and Assessment, 8(2):63–70. [doi:10.1023/A:1023905532180]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Inglett, P.W., Reddy, K.R., 2006. Investigating the use of macrophyte stable C and N isotopic ratios as indicators of wetland eutrophication: Patterns in the P-affected Everglades. Limnology and Oceangraohy, 51(5):2380–2387.Google Scholar
  27. Jeppesen, E., Søndergaard, M., Kronvang, B., Jensen, J.P., Svendsen, L.M., Lauridsen, T.L., 1999. Lake and catchment management in Denmark. Hydrobiologia, 395–396:419–432. [doi:10.1023/A:1017071602549]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Jin, X.C., Xu, Q.J., Huang, C.Z., 2005. Current status and future tendency of lake eutrophication in China. Science in China Series C-Life Science, 48((Suppl.)):948–954.Google Scholar
  29. Jin, X.C., Wang, S.R., Pang, Y., Wu, F.C., 2006. Phosphorus fractions and the effect of pH on the phosphorusrelease of the sediments from different trophic areas in Taihu Lake, China. Environmental Pollution, 139(2):288–295. [doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2005.05.010]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kant, S., Raina, A.K., 1990. Limnological studies of two ponds in Jammu. II. Physico-chemical parameters. Journal of Environmental Biology, 11(2):137–144.Google Scholar
  31. Khan, F.A., Ansari, A.A., 2005. Eutrophication: An ecological vision. The Botanical Review, 71(4):449–482. [doi:10.1663/0006-8101(2005)071[0449:EAEV]2.0.CO;2]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Le Pape, O., Menesguen, A., 1997. Hydrodynamic prevention of eutrophication in the Bay of Brest (France), a modeling approach. Journal of Marine Systems, 12(1–4): 171–186. [doi:10.1016/S0924-7963(96)00096-6]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Li, J.X., Liao, W.G., 2002. Discussion on the synthetic adjustive guidelines for the prevention and cure of eutrophication. Protection of Water Resource, 2(5):4–5.Google Scholar
  34. Likens, G.E., Bormann, F.H., Pierce, R.S., Eaton, J.S., Johnson, N.M., 1977. Biogeochemistry of a Forested Ecosystem. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  35. Lin, L., Wu, J.L., Wang, S.M., 2006. Evidence from isotopic geochemistry as an indicator of eutrophication of Meiliang Bay in Lake Taihu, China. Science in China Series D-Earth Sciences, 49(s1):62–71. [doi:10.1007/s11430-006-8106-8]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lin, Y.J., He, Z.L., Yang, Y.G., Stoffella, P.J., Philips, E.J., Powella, C.A., 2008. Nitrogen versus phosphorus limitation of phytoplankton growth in Ten Mile Creek, Florida, USA. Hydrobiologia, in press.Google Scholar
  37. Liu, W., Qiu, R.L., 2007. Water eutrophication in China and the combating strategies. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, 82(9):781–786. [doi:10.1002/jctb.1755]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lu, J.J., Yang, H., Gao, L., Yu, T.Y., 2005. Spatial variation of P and N in water and sediments of Dianchi Lake, China. Pedosphere, 15(1):78–83.Google Scholar
  39. Maggie, B.M., 2004. Total Maximum Daily Load Effectiveness Monitoring Study: Lakes Erie and Campbell. Quality Assurance Project Plan, No. 04-03-206.Google Scholar
  40. Mainstone, C.P., Parr, W., 2002. Phosphorus in rivers-ecology and management. The Science of the Total Environment, 282-283(1–3):25–47. [doi:10.1016/S0048-9697(01)00937-8]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ndebele, M.R., Magadza, C.H.D., 2006. The occurrence of microcystin-LR in Lake Chivero, Zimbabwe. Lakes and Reservoirs Research and Management, 11(1):57–62. [doi:10.1111/j.1440-1770.2006.00287.x]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Nhapi, I., 2004. Options for Wastewater Management in Harare, Zimbabwe. Ph.D Thesis, Wageningen University, Wageningen, the Netherlands.Google Scholar
  43. Ni, L.Y., Wang, D.M., Xie, P., 1999. Experimental Studies on the Growth of Potamogeton macckianus A. under Low-Light Stress in Highly Eutrophic Water. Acta Hydrobiologica Sinica, 23:53–58.Google Scholar
  44. Paerl, H.W., 1998. Structure and function of anthropogenically altered microbial communities in coastal waters. Curren Opinion in Microbiology, 1(3):296–302. [doi:10.1016/S1369-5274(98)80033-7]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Paerl, H.W., Dyble, J., Moisander, P.H., Noble, R.T., Piehler M.F., Pinckney, J.L., Steppe, T.F., Twomey, L., Valdes, L.M., 2003. Microbial indicators of aquatic ecosystem change: current applications to eutrophication studies. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 46(3):233–246. [doi:10.1016/S0168-6496(03)00200-9]CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Phlips, E.J., 2002. Algae and Eutrophication. In: Bitton, G. (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Environmental Microbiology. John Wiley and Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  47. Ralph, P.J., Tomasko, D., Moore, K., Seddon, S., Macinnis-Ng, C.M.O., 2006. Human Impacts on Seagrasses: Eutrophication, Sedimentation, and Contamination. In: Larkum, A.W.D., Orth, R.J., Duarte, C.M. (Eds.), Seagrasses: Biology, Ecology and Conservation. Springer, the Netherlands, p.567–593.Google Scholar
  48. Redfield, A.C., Ketchum, B.H., Richards, F.A., 1963. The Influence of Organisms on the Composition of Seawater. In: Hill, M.N. (Ed.), The Sea. Volume 2. Wiley-Interscience, New York, p.26–77.Google Scholar
  49. Reutter, J.M., 1989. Lake Erie: Phosphorus and Eutrophication. Fact Sheet 015. Ohio Sea Grant College Program, Columbus.Google Scholar
  50. Reynolds, C., 2006. Ecology of Phytoplankton. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p.535.Google Scholar
  51. Richardson, C.J., King, R.S., Qian, S.S., Vaithiyanathan, P., Qualls, R.G., Stow, C.A., 2007. Estimating ecological thresholds for phosphorus in the Everglades. Environmental Science and Technology, 41(23):8084–8091. [doi:10.1021/es062624w]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Romero, J.R., Kagalou, I., Imberger, J., Hela, D., Kotti, M., Bartzokas, A., Albanis, T., Evmirides, N., Karkabounas, S., Papagiannis, J., Bithava, A., 2002. Seasonal water quality of shallow and eutrophic Lake Pamvotis, Greece: Implications for restoration. Hydrobiologia, 474(1–3): 91–105. [doi:10.1023/A:1016569124312]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Ruley, J.E., Rusch, K.A., 2002. An assessment of long-term post-restoration water quality trends in a shallow, subtropical, urban hypereutrophic lake. Ecological Engineering, 19(4):265–280. [doi:10.1016/S0925-8574(02)00096-4]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Schelske, P.C., 1989. Assessment of nutrient effects and nutrient limitation in Lake Okeechobee. Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 25(6):1119–1130. [doi:10.1111/j.1752-1688.1989.tb01325.x]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Shen, D.S., 2002. Study on limiting factors of water eutrophication of the network of rivers in plain. Journal of Zhejiang University (Agriculture and Life Sciences), 28(4):94–97 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  56. Søndergaard, M., Jeppesen, E., Lauridsen, T.L., Skov, C., van Nes, E.H., Roijackers, R., Lammens, E., Portielje, R., 2007. Lake restoration: Successes, failures and long-term effects. Journal of Applied Ecology, 44(6):1095–1105. [doi:10.1111/j.1365-2664.2007.01363.x]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Telesh, I.V., 2004. Plankton of the baltic estuarine ecosystems with emphasis on Neva Estuary: A review of present knowledge and research perspectives. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 49(3):206–219. [doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2004.02.009]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Thiébaut, G., Muller, S., 1998. The impact of eutrophication on aquatic macrophyte diversity in weakly mineralized streams in the Northern Vosges mountains (NE France). Biodiversity and Conservation, 7(8):1051–1068. [doi:10.1023/A:1008809131487]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Tong, C.H., Yang, X.E., Pu, P.M., 2003. Degradation of aquatic ecosystem in the catchment of Mu-Ge Lake and its Remediation countermeasures. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 17(1):72–88 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  60. Turner, R.E., Rabalais, N.N., Justic, D., Dortch, Q., 2003. Global patterns of dissolved N, P and Si in large rivers. Biogeochemistry, 64(3):297–317. [doi:10.1023/A:1024960007569]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Vădineanu, A., Cristofor, S., Ignat, C., 1992. Phytoplankton and submerged macrophytes in the aquatic ecosystems of the Danube Delta during the last decade. Hydrobiologia, 243–244(1):141–146. [doi:10.1007/BF00007029]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Vaithiyanathan, P., Richardson, C.J., 1999. Macrophyte species changes in the Everglades: Examination along a eutrophication gradient. Journal of Environmental Quality, 28(4):1347–1358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Wang, X., Lu, X.G., Zhang, X.L., Zhang, Z.Q., 2004. Eutrophication aspects and effective factors analysis in Songhua Lake. Wetland Science, 2(4):273–278 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  64. Wang, Z.F., Zhang, Q., Lu, Y., Lv, H.Y., 1996. The effects of nutrients and trace metals on the growth of the red tide organism Prorocentrum micans. Donghai Marine Sciences, 14(3):33–38.Google Scholar
  65. Watson, A.M., Ormerod, S.J., 2004. The distribution of three uncommon freshwater gastropods in the drainage ditches of British grazing marshes. Aquatic Conservation, 118(3): 455–466.Google Scholar
  66. Welch, F.B., Crooke, G.D., 1987. Lakes. In: Jordan, W.R., Aber, J.D., Gilpin, M.E. (Eds.), Restoration Ecology: A Synthetic Approach to Ecological Research. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, p.109–129.Google Scholar
  67. Western, D., 2001. Human-modified ecosystems and future evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 98(10):5458–5465. [doi:10.1073/pnas.101093598]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Xu, F.L., Tao, S., Dawson, R.W., Li, P.G., Cao, J., 2001. Lake ecosystem health assessment: Indicators and methods. Water Research, 35(13):3157–3167. [doi:10.1016/S0043-1354(01)00040-9]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Ye, C., Xu, Q.J., Kong, H.N., Shen, Z.M., Yan, C.Z., 2007. Eutrophication conditions and ecological status in typical bays of Lake Taihu in China. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 135(1–3):217–225. [doi:10.1007/s10661-007-9644-z]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Yin, K., 2002. Monsoonal influence on seasonal variations in nutrients and phytoplankton biomass in coastal waters of Hong Kong in the vicinity of the Pearl River estuary. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 245:111–122. [doi:10.3354/meps245111]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Yu, H.M., Len, Y., 2004. Elementary discussion on the harm of blue alga and its prevention and cure. Beijing Aquatic Product, 1(5):29–30.Google Scholar
  72. Zhao, S.C., 2004. Mechanisms of Lake Eutrophication and technologies for controlling in China. Advance in Earth Sciences, 19(1):138–140.Google Scholar
  73. Zhu, G.W., Qin, B.Q., Gao, G., Zhang, L., Luo, L.C., Zhang, Y.L., 2007. Effects of hydrodynamics on phosphorus concentrations in water of Lake Taihu, a large, shallow, eutrophic lake of China. Hydrobiologia, 581(1):53–61. [doi:10.1007/s10750-006-0519-z]CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Zhejiang University Press 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xiao-e Yang
    • 1
  • Xiang Wu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hu-lin Hao
    • 1
  • Zhen-li He
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.MOE Key Laboratory of Polluted Environment Remediation and Ecological HealthZhejiang UniversityHangzhouChina
  2. 2.Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Subtropic Soil and Plant NutritionZhejiang UniversityHangzhouChina
  3. 3.Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Indian River Research and Education CenterUniversity of FloridaFort PierceUSA

Personalised recommendations