Advertisement

Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE A

, Volume 9, Issue 3, pp 373–380 | Cite as

Application of the ISCST3 model for predicting PCDD/F concentrations in agricultural soil in the vicinity of a MSWI plant in China

  • Meng-xia Xu
  • Jian-hua Yan
  • Sheng-yong Lu
  • Xiao-dong Li
  • Tong Chen
  • Ming-jiang Ni
  • Hui-fen DaiEmail author
  • Ke-fa Cen
Article

Abstract

Based on the Industrial Source Complex Short-Term Version 3 (ISCST3) model, a simplified modeling approach was developed to predict concentrations of congeners of polychlorinated-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) of agricultural soil, within a radius of 3 km from a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) plant after its 4-year operation in Hangzhou, China. Comparisons were made between the measured and estimated congener-specific concentrations and the international-toxic equivalent (I-TEQ) values of soil samples with respect to distance from the stack. The results indicate that the predictions of soil PCDD/F concentrations and I-TEQ values were generally lower than their observations, and that the higher the degree of under-estimation seems, the greater the further downwind one gets. Nevertheless, most of the predictions were in good agreement with the trend of measured ones and were within a factor of ten for samples located within 1 km of the plant. Besides, analysis of contributions of various deposition pathways confirms that in addition to wet particle deposition, the dry gaseous deposition is essential for realistic prediction of PCDD/F depositions to soil, especially for tetra- and penta-chlorinated dioxins.

Key words

Agricultural soil Dispersion model ISCST3 Municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) polychlorinated-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) 

CLC number

X5 X8 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bao, Z.C., Wang, K., Kang, J., Zhao, L., 1995. Analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in pentachlorophenol and sodium pentachlorophenate. Huan Jing Hua Xue, 14(4):317–321 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  2. Basham, J.P., Whitwell, I., 1999. Dispersion modelling of dioxin releases from the waste incinerator at Avonmouth, Bristol, UK. Atmos. Environ., 33(20):3405–3416. [doi:10.1016/S1352-2310(98)00344-6]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Caserini, S., Cernuschi, S., Giugliano, M., Grosso, M., Lonati, G., Mattaini, P., 2004. Air and soil dioxin levels at three sites in Italy in proximity to MSW incineration plants. Chemosphere, 54(9):1279–1287. [doi:10.1016/S0045-6535(03)00250-9]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chang, M.B., Chi, K.H., Chang, S.H., Chen, Y.W., 2004. Measurement of PCDD/F congener distributions in MWI stack gas and ambient air in northern Taiwan. Atmos. Environ., 38(16):2535–2544. [doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2004.01.037]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chao, M.R., Hu, C.W., Ma, H.W., Chang-Chien, G.P., Lee, W.J., Chang, L.W., Wu, K.Y., 2003. Size distribution of particle-bound polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in the ambient air of a municipal incinerator. Atmos. Environ., 37(35):4945–4954. [doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2003.08.027]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cheng, P.S., Hsu, M.S., Ma, E., Chou, U., Ling, Y.C., 2003. Levels of PCDD/Fs in ambient air and soil in the vicinity of a municipal solid waste incinerator, in Hsinchu. Chemosphere, 52(9):1389–1396. [doi:10.1016/S0045-6535(03)00474-0]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Choi, S.D., Chang, Y.S., 2005. Evaluation of an Industrial Waste Incinerator on the PCDD/Fs Levels by Measured and Modeled Data. Organohalogen Compd., Toronto, p.1180–1182.Google Scholar
  8. Coutinho, M., Pereira, M., Borrego, C., 2007. Monitoring of ambient air PCDD/F levels in Portugal. Chemosphere, 67(9):1715–1721. [doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.05.084]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Jun, J., Hao, P., Tang, X.Y., 2004. An Inventory of Potential PCDD and PCDF Emission Sources in the Mainland of China. Organohalogen Compd., Berlin, p.852–858.Google Scholar
  10. Lee, S.J., Choi, S.D., Jin, G.Z., Oh, J.E., Chang, Y.S., Shin, S.K., 2007. Assessment of PCDD/F risk after implementation of emission reduction at a MSWI. Chemosphere, 68(5):856–863. [doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.02.036]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Lorber, M., Pinsky, P., 2000. An evaluation of three empirical air-to-leaf models for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans. Chemosphere, 41(6):931–941. [doi:10.1016/S0045-6535(99)00318-5]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Lorber, M., Pinsky, P., Gehring, P., Braverman, C., Winters, D., Sovocool, W., 1998. Relationships between dioxins in soil, air, ash, and emissions from a municipal solid waste incinerator emitting large amounts of dioxins. Chemosphere, 37(9–12):2173–2197. [doi:10.1016/S0045-6535(98)00279-3]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lorber, M., Eschenroeder, A., Robinson, R., 2000. Testing the USA EPA’s ISCST-Version 3 model on Dioxins: a comparison of predicted and observed air and soil concentrations. Atmos. Environ., 34(23):3995–4010. [doi:10.1016/S1352-2310(00)00163-1]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Meneses, M., Schuhmacher, M., Domingo, J.L., 2002. A de sign of two simple models to predict PCDD/F concentrations in vegetation and soils. Chemosphere, 46(9–10):1393–1402. [doi:10.1016/S0045-6535(01)00252-1]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Meneses, M., Schuhmacher, M., Domingo, J.L., 2004. Health risk assessment of emissions of dioxins and furans from a municipal waste incinerator: comparison with other emission sources. Environ. Int., 30(4):481–489. [doi:10.1016/j.envint.2003.10.001]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. NIWA, 2004. Good Practice Guide for Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling. Wellington, New Zealand, p.8–10.Google Scholar
  17. Ogura, I., Masunaga, S., Nakanishi, J., 2003. Analysis of atmospheric behavior of PCDDs/PCDFs by a one-compartment box model. Chemosphere, 53(4):399–412. [doi:10.1016/S0045-6535(03)00012-2]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Oh, J.E., Choi, S.D., Lee, S.J., Chang, Y.S., 2006. Influence of a municipal solid waste incinerator on ambient air and soil PCDD/Fs levels. Chemosphere, 64(4):579–587. [doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.11.012]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ohta, S., Kuriyama, O., Aozasa, T., Nakao, M., Tanahashi, H., Miyata, S., 2000. Survey on levels of PCDDs, PCDFs, and Non-Ortho Co-PCBs in soil and sediment from a high cancer area near a batch-type municipal solid waste incinerator in Japan. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 64(5):630–637. [doi:10.1007/s001280000050]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Olie, K., Vermeulen, P.L., Hutzinger, O., 1977. Chlorodibenzo-p-dioxins and chlorodibenzofurans are trace components of fly ash and flue gas of some municipal incinerations in the Netherlands. Chemosphere, 6(8):455–459. [doi:10.1016/0045-6535(77)90035-2]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Peng, X.Y., Gu, N.Z., 2006. The present situation and solution of MSW treatment in China. Gong Ye Guo Lu, (3):6–10, 13 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  22. Schuhmacher, M., Domingo, J.L., 2006. Long-term study of environmental levels of dioxins and furans in the vicinity of a municipal solid waste incinerator. Environ. Int., 32(3):397–404. [doi:10.1016/j.envint.2005.09.002]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency), 1994. Tetra through Octa-chlorinated Dioxins and Furans by Isotype Dilution HRGC/HRMS, p.1–86.Google Scholar
  24. USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency), 1995. PCRAMMET User’s Guide, p.1–95.Google Scholar
  25. Yamamoto, T., Fukushima, M., 1993. Modeling study on concentration of combustion source complex to PCDD/PCDF levels in urban air. Chemosphere, 27(1-3):295–300. [doi:10.1016/0045-6535(93)90305-O]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Yan, J.H., Chen, T., Li, X.D., Zhang, J., Lu, S.Y., Ni, M.J., Cen, K.F., 2006. Evaluation of PCDD/Fs emission from fluidized bed incinerators co-firing MSW with coal in China. J. Hazad. Mater., 135(1-3):47–51. [doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2005.12.007]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Yan, J.H., Xu, M.X., Lu, S.Y., Li, X.D., Chen, T., Ni, M.J., Dai, H.F., Cen, K.F., 2007. PCDD/F concentrations of agricultural soil in the vicinity of fluidized bed incinerators of co-firing MSW with coal in Hangzhou, China. J. Hazad. Mater. (in Press). [doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.06.018]Google Scholar
  28. Yoshida, K., Ikeda, S., Nakanishi, J., Tsuzuki, N., 2001. Validation of modeling approach to evaluate congener-specific concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in air and soil near a solid waste incinerator. Chemosphere, 45(8):1209–1217. [doi:10.1016/S0045-6535(00)00587-7]CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Meng-xia Xu
    • 1
  • Jian-hua Yan
    • 1
  • Sheng-yong Lu
    • 1
  • Xiao-dong Li
    • 1
  • Tong Chen
    • 1
  • Ming-jiang Ni
    • 1
  • Hui-fen Dai
    • 2
    Email author
  • Ke-fa Cen
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Institute for Thermal Power EngineeringZhejiang UniversityHangzhouChina
  2. 2.School of MedicineZhejiang UniversityHangzhouChina

Personalised recommendations