Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B

, Volume 7, Issue 1, pp 51–55 | Cite as

Nutritional quality, functional properties and anti-nutrient compositions of the larva of Cirina forda (Westwood) (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae)

  • Omotoso O.T. 


Determination of the proximate, nutritionally valuable minerals and anti-nutrient compositions in larvae of Cirina forda (W) showed that they contained high levels of protein, (55.50%±1.20%) with ash, moisture, fat, and carbohydrate levels being (10.26%±0.01%), (10.85%±0.38%), (4.68%±0.01%) and (18.70%±0.84%) respectively. Fibre was not detected. Protein solubility was higher in alkaline media than in acidic media while the isoelectric points were pH 4, 6 and 9 indicating that C. forda may be useful in food formulations involving foods like meat products. Phosphorus had the highest value of (215.54±0.21) mg/100 g while manganese had the lowest value of (1.14±0.10) mg/100 g. Copper, Co, Pb, Cr and Ni were not available. Water absorption capacity was (300%±0.15%), oil absorption capacity was (358.44%±0.21%) and foaming stability was (3%±0.00%). The results of anti-nutritional analysis revealed that oxalate and phytic acid contents were (4.11±0.05) mg/100 g and (1.02±0.00) mg/100 g respectively and that these values fell within nutritionally accepted values. Tannin was not detected in C. forda. C. forda, a rich source of animal nutrients, usable in human diets and animal feeds formulations.

Key words

Cirina forda Anti-nutrients Protein solubility Mineral analysis Proximate composition 

Document code

CLC number



Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adedire, C.O., Aiyesanmi, A.F., 1999. Proximate and mineral composition of the adult and immature forms of the variegated grasshopper, Zonocerus variegates (L.) (Acridoidea: Pygomorphidae). Bioscience Research Communications, 11:121–126.Google Scholar
  2. Adeyeye, E.I., Oshodi, A.A., Ipinmoroti, K.O., 1994. Functional properties of some varieties of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa L.) flour II. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition, 45:115–126.Google Scholar
  3. Adeyeye, E.I., Ipinmoroti, K.O., Oguntokun, M.O., 2002. Chemical composition and functional properties of the African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa) seeds. Pakistan Journal Science and Industrial Research, 45:29–33.Google Scholar
  4. Aiyesanmi, A.F., Oguntokun, M.O., 1996. Nutrient composition of Dioclea reflexa seed-an underutilized edible legume. Rivista Italiana delle Sostanze Grasse, 73:521–523.Google Scholar
  5. Ajakaiye, C.O., Bawo, A., 1990. Comparison of the chemical composition of Trinervitermes germinatus (Wasmann) with that of its feed. Nigerian Journal of Entomology, 2:90–99.Google Scholar
  6. Akubor, P.I., Chukwu, J.K., 1999. Proximate composition and selected functional properties of fermented and unfermented African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla) seed flour. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 54:227–238. [doi:10.1023/A:1008100930856]CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Aladesanmi, A., Oshodi, A.A., Ebun-Oluwa, O., 1997. Effect of salts on some of the functional properties of bovine plasma protein concentrate. Food Chemistry, 59:333–338. [doi:10.1016/S0308-8146(96)00102-1]Google Scholar
  8. Anthonio, H.O., Isoun, M., 1982. Nigerian Cookbook, 1st Ed. Macmillan Press, London, p.172.Google Scholar
  9. AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemist), 1990. Official Methods of Analysis, Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 15th Ed. AOAC Press, Gaithersburg, USA.Google Scholar
  10. Ashiru, M.O., 1988. The food value of the larvae of Anaphe venata Butler (Lepidoptera: Notodonitidae). Ecology Food and Nutrition, 22:313–320.Google Scholar
  11. Beuchat, L.R., 1977. Functional and electrophoretic characteristics of succinylated peanut flour protein. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 25:258–261. [doi:10.1021/jf60210a044]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Day, R.A., Underwood, A.L., 1986. Qualitative Analysis, 5th Ed. Prentice-Hall Publications, New Delhi, India, p.701.Google Scholar
  13. deLumen, B.O., Becker, R., Reyes, P.S., 1986. Legumes and a cereal with high methionine/cystine contents. Journal of Agric. Food Chem., 34:361–364. [doi:10.1021/jf00068a053]Google Scholar
  14. Dunkei, F.V., 1996. Nutritional value of various insects per 100 grams. The Food Insect Newsletter, 9:1–8.Google Scholar
  15. Enujiugha, V.N., Olagundoye, T.V., 2001. Comparative nutritional characteristics of raw fermented and roasted African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) seeds. Rivista Italiana delle Sostanze Grasse, 78:247–250.Google Scholar
  16. Enujiugha, V.N., Ayodele-Oni, O., 2003. Evaluation of nutrients and some anti-nutrients in lesser-known, underutilized oilseeds. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 38:1–4. [doi:10.1046/j.1365-2621.2003.00698.x]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fasoranti, J.O., Ajiboye, D.O., 1993. Some edible insects of Kwara State, Nigeria. American Entomologist, 39:113–116.Google Scholar
  18. Goodman, W.G., 1989. Chitin: a magic bullet? The Food Insect Newsletter, 3:6–9.Google Scholar
  19. Kinsella, J.E., 1976. Functional properties of protein foods. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 1:219–229.Google Scholar
  20. Markkar, A.O.S., Goodchild, A.V., 1996. Quantification of Tannins. A Laboratory Manual. International Centre for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas (ICARDA) Press, Aleppo, Syria, p.4–25.Google Scholar
  21. Mba, A.U., 1980. Chemical composition of some local sources of protein foods for man. Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Science, 1:142–147.Google Scholar
  22. Mwizenge, S.T., 1993. Delicious insects: seasonal delicacies in the diet of rural Zambians. World and I, 8:234.Google Scholar
  23. NRC (National Research Council), 1980. Recommended Dietary Allowances, 9th Ed. Nat. Acad. Sci., Washington DC.Google Scholar
  24. Oshodi, A.A., 1992. Proximate composition, nutritionally valuable minerals and functional properties of Adenopus breviflorus benth seed flour and protein concentrate. Food Chemistry, 45:79–83. [doi:10.1016/0308-8146(92)90013-R]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Pearson, D., 1976. Chemical Analysis of Foods, 7th Ed. Churchill, Livingstone, London, p.7–11.Google Scholar
  26. Perutz, M.F., 1978. Electrostatic effects in proteins. Science, 201:1187–1189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Reddy, N.R., Balakrishnan, C.N., Salunkhe, D.K., 1978. Phytate, phosphorus and mineral changes during germination and cooking of black grain (Phaseolus mungo L.) seeds. Journal of Food Science, 43:540.Google Scholar
  28. Robert, K., 1989. The application of industrial technology for production of insects as food. The food Insect Newsletter, 3:3.Google Scholar
  29. Sathe, S.K., Salunkhe, D.K., 1981. Functional properties of the Great Northern Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) proteins: emulsion, foaming, viscosity and gelation properties. Journal of Food Science, 46:71–74.Google Scholar
  30. Sutton, M.Q., 1988. Insects as food: aboriginal entomophagy in the Great Basin. Anthropol. Papers, 33:115.Google Scholar
  31. Udoh, A.P., Effiong, R.I., Edem, D.O., 1985. Nutrient composition of dogwhelk (Thais cattifera), a protein source for humans. Tropical Science, 35:64–67.Google Scholar
  32. Vijayakumari, K., Siddhuraju, P., Janardhanan, K., 1997. Effect of domestic processing on the levels of certain antinutrients in Prosopis chilensis seeds (Molina) Stunz. Food Chemistry, 59:367–371. [doi:10.1016/S0308-8146(96)00249-X]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wheeler, E.L., Ferrel, R.E., 1971. A method for phytic acid determination in wheat and wheat fractions. Cereal Chem., 48:312–320.Google Scholar
  34. Yasumatsu, K., Sawada, K., Moritaka, S., Misalei, M., Toda, J., Wada, T., Ishii, K., 1972. Whipping and emulsifying properties of soybean products. Agric. Biol. Chem., 36:719–727.Google Scholar
  35. Yoloye, V.L., 1988. Basic Invertebrate Zoology, 1st Ed. University of Ilorin Press, Ilorin, p.192.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Zhejiang University 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Omotoso O.T. 
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyUniversity of Ado-EkitiAdo-Ekiti, Ekiti stateNigeria

Personalised recommendations