Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE A

, Volume 19, Issue 12, pp 951–960 | Cite as

Effective and green tire recycling through microwave pyrolysis

  • Yu-zhe Zhang
  • Ting-ting Bian
  • Yi Zhang
  • Xu-dong Zheng
  • Zhong-yu Li


Waste tire rubber has become a severe environmental issue, which calls for a green method to recycle this rubber. Microwave thermolysis serves as an ideal recycling process for used tires. By surveying the dielectric characteristics from 25 to 700 °C under microwave frequencies of 915 and 2466 MHz, the microwave absorption ability of waste tire rubbers was studied. At temperatures below 350 °C, the dielectric characteristics were relatively steady. Both the loss factor and relative dielectric constant (DC) increased sharply with the rise in temperature. The reason for this is the release of volatile substances, which increases the electrical conductivity. The performance of microwave absorption of tire rubber during thermolysis, and thus the efficiency of microwave tire rubber thermolysis, can be largely impacted by the specimen dimension. The calculation of the reflection loss (RL) of the tire rubber specimens suggests that when the waste tire rubber is 5 mm thick, the highest microwave absorption can be achieved at 915 MHz and 592.1 °C, with RL of −17.30 dB. The product after microwave pyrolysis of waste tire rubber comprises 35% carbon black, 40% oil, and 25% gas. Based on this investigation of the optimal condition of microwave absorption, a proper microwave pyrolysis recycling system was designed for waste tire. This system is efficient at recycling the waste tire rubber into valuable carbon black, oil, and gas products.

Key words

Recycling system Waste tires Microwave Thermolysis Carbon black Oil Gas 




废旧轮胎正成为一个日益严峻的环境问题。本文旨在研究发掘一个高效绿色的处理废旧轮胎的方法。本文探讨微波热解废旧轮胎的可能性,同时研究不同环境温度、微波频率以及样本大小对 微波热解废旧轮胎效率的影响。


1. 通过实验分析,验证影响微波热解废旧轮胎的关键因素,同时找出微波热解废旧轮胎的最佳条件。2. 理论设计多个与分解效率相关的变量,推导其计算公式,从而证明提高热解效率的关键因 素。3. 分析热解后产物,证明该方法是高效绿色 的。


1. 微波热解废旧轮胎的最佳条件是:轮胎样品厚度为5 mm、微波频率为915 MHz 以及环境温度为592.1 °C。2. 分解产物中包含35%的炭黑、40%的原油以及25%的可燃性气体;这证明微波热解 法是有效的。3. 所有产物皆可重复利用,证明该方法是高效绿色的。


循环系统 废旧轮胎 微波 热解 炭黑 油 天然气 

CLC number



Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ahmaruzzaman M, Gupta VK, 2011. Rice husk and its ash as low-cost adsorbents in water and wastewater treatment. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 50(24): 13589–13613. Google Scholar
  2. Al-Harahsheh M, Kingman SW, 2004. Microwave-assisted leaching—a review. Hydrometallurgy, 73(3-4):189–203. Google Scholar
  3. Ariyadejwanich P, Tanthapanichakoon W, Nakagawa K, et al., 2003. Preparation and characterization of mesoporous activated carbon from waste tires. Carbon, 41(1):157–164. Google Scholar
  4. Asfaram A, Ghaedi M, Agarwal S, et al., 2015. Removal of basic dye Auramine-O by ZnS:Cu nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon: optimization of parameters using response surface methodology with central composite design. RSC Advances, 5(24):18438–18450. Google Scholar
  5. Bartoli M, Rosi L, Giovannelli A, et al., 2018. Microwave assisted pyrolysis of crop residues from Vitis vinifera. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 130:305–313. Google Scholar
  6. Bignozzi MC, Sandrolini F, 2006. Tyre rubber waste recycling in self-compacting concrete. Cement and Concrete Research, 36(4):735–739. Google Scholar
  7. Caponero J, Tenório JAS, Levendis YA, et al., 2003. Emissions of batch combustion of waste tire chips: the afterburner effect. Energy & Fuels, 17(1):225–239. Google Scholar
  8. Caponero J, Tenório JAS, Levendis YA, et al., 2004. Emissions of batch combustion of waste tire chips: the hot flue-gas filtering effect. Energy & Fuels, 18(1):102–115. Google Scholar
  9. Caponero J, Tenório JAS, Levendis YA, et al., 2005. Emissions of batch combustion of waste tire chips: the pyrolysis effect. Combustion Science and Technology, 177(2):347–381. Google Scholar
  10. Casal MD, Canga CS, Díez MA, et al., 2005. Low-temperature pyrolysis of coals with different coking pressure characteristics. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 74(1-2):96–103. Google Scholar
  11. Dai XW, Yin XL, Wu CZ, et al., 2001. Pyrolysis of waste tires in a circulating fluidized-bed reactor. Energy, 26(4):385–399. Google Scholar
  12. Devaraj M, Saravanan R, Deivasigamani R, et al., 2016. Fabrication of novel shape Cu and Cu/Cu2O nanoparticles modified electrode for the determination of dopamine and paracetamol. Journal of Molecular Liquids, 221:930–941. Google Scholar
  13. Fang SW, Gu WL, Dai MQ, et al., 2018. A study on microwave-assisted fast co-pyrolysis of chlorella and tire in the N2 and CO2 atmospheres. Bioresource Technology, 250:821–827. Google Scholar
  14. Ghaedi M, Hajjati S, Mahmudi Z, et al., 2015. Modeling of competitive ultrasonic assisted removal of the dyes–Methylene blue and Safranin-O using Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Chemical Engineering Journal, 268:28–37. Google Scholar
  15. Gupta VK, Saleh TA, 2013. Sorption of pollutants by porous carbon, carbon nanotubes and fullerene-an overview. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 20(5): 2828–2843. Google Scholar
  16. Gupta VK, Gupta B, Rastogi A, et al., 2011a. Pesticides removal from waste water by activated carbon prepared from waste rubber tire. Water Research, 45(13):4047–4055. Google Scholar
  17. Gupta VK, Jain R, Nayak A, et al., 2011b. Removal of the hazardous dye—tartrazine by photodegradation on titanium dioxide surface. Materials Science and Engineering: C, 31(5):1062–1067. Google Scholar
  18. Gupta VK, Kumar R, Nayak A, et al., 2013. Adsorptive removal of dyes from aqueous solution onto carbon nanotubes: a review. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 193-194:24–34. Google Scholar
  19. Gupta VK, Nayak A, Agarwal S, et al., 2014. Potential of activated carbon from waste rubber tire for the adsorption of phenolics: effect of pre-treatment conditions. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 417:420–430. Google Scholar
  20. Gupta VK, Nayak A, Agarwal S, 2015. Bioadsorbents for remediation of heavy metals: current status and their future prospects. Environmental Engineering Research, 20(1):1–18. Google Scholar
  21. Huang H, Tang L, 2009. Pyrolysis treatment of waste tire powder in a capacitively coupled RF plasma reactor. Energy Conversion and Management, 50(3):611–617. Google Scholar
  22. Jia Q, Che DF, Liu YH, et al., 2009. Effect of the cooling and reheating during coal pyrolysis on the conversion from char-N to NO/N2O. Fuel Processing Technology, 90(1): 8–15. Google Scholar
  23. Karthikeyan S, Gupta VK, Boopathy R, et al., 2012. A new approach for the degradation of high concentration of aromatic amine by heterocatalytic Fenton oxidation: kinetic and spectroscopic studies. Journal of Molecular Liquids, 173:153–163. Google Scholar
  24. Kato T, Yoshikawa N, Taniguchi S, et al., 2011. Microwave magnetic field heating of a cobalt-based amorphous ribbon. Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 50(3R):033001. Google Scholar
  25. Khani H, Rofouei MK, Arab P, et al., 2010. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes-ionic liquid-carbon paste electrode as a super selectivity sensor: application to potentiometric monitoring of mercury ion(II). Journal of Hazardous Materials, 183(1-3):402–409. Google Scholar
  26. Lee JM, Lee JS, Kim JR, et al., 1995. Pyrolysis of waste tires with partial oxidation in a fluidized-bed reactor. Energy, 20(10):969–976. Google Scholar
  27. Levendis YA, Atal A, Carlson J, et al., 1996. Comparative study on the combustion and emissions of waste tire crumb and pulverized coal. Environmental Science & Technology, 30(9):2742–2754. Google Scholar
  28. Metaxas R, 2000. Radio frequency and microwave heating: a perspective for the millennium. Power Engineering Journal, 14(2):51–60. Google Scholar
  29. Mittal A, Mittal J, Malviya A, et al., 2010. Removal and recovery of Chrysoidine Y from aqueous solutions by waste materials. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 344(2):497–507. Google Scholar
  30. Mohammadi N, Khani H, Gupta VK, et al., 2011. Adsorption process of methyl orange dye onto mesoporous carbon material–kinetic and thermodynamic studies. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 362(2):457–462. Google Scholar
  31. Mui ELK, Ko DCK, McKay G, 2004. Production of active carbons from waste tyres––a review. Carbon, 42(14): 2789–2805. Google Scholar
  32. Nisar J, Ali G, Ullah N, et al., 2018. Pyrolysis of waste tire rubber: influence of temperature on pyrolysates yield. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 6(2): 3469–3473. Google Scholar
  33. Peng ZW, Hwang JY, Mouris J, et al., 2010. Microwave penetration depth in materials with non-zero magnetic susceptibility. ISIJ International, 50(11):1590–1596. Google Scholar
  34. Peng ZW, Hwang JY, Mouris J, et al., 2011. Microwave absorption characteristics of conventionally heated nonstoichiometric ferrous oxide. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 42(8):2259–2263. Google Scholar
  35. Peng ZW, Hwang JY, Kim BG, et al., 2012. Microwave absorption capability of high volatile bituminous coal during pyrolysis. Energy & Fuels, 26(8):5146–5151. Google Scholar
  36. Rajendran S, Khan MM, Gracia F, et al., 2016. Ce3+-ioninduced visible-light photocatalytic degradation and electrochemical activity of ZnO/CeO2 nanocomposite. Scientific Reports, 6:31641. Google Scholar
  37. Robati D, Mirza B, Rajabi M, et al., 2016. Removal of hazardous dyes-BR 12 and methyl orange using graphene oxide as an adsorbent from aqueous phase. Chemical Engineering Journal, 284:687–697. Google Scholar
  38. Sadhukhan AK, Gupta P, Saha RK, 2011. Modeling and experimental investigations on the pyrolysis of large coal particles. Energy & Fuels, 25(12):5573–5583. Google Scholar
  39. Saleh TA, Gupta VK, 2011. Functionalization of tungsten oxide into MWCNT and its application for sunlightinduced degradation of rhodamine B. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 362(2):337–344. Google Scholar
  40. Saleh TA, Gupta VK, 2012a. Photo-catalyzed degradation of hazardous dye methyl orange by use of a composite catalyst consisting of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and titanium dioxide. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 371(1):101–106. Google Scholar
  41. Saleh TA, Gupta VK, 2012b. Synthesis and characterization of alumina nano-particles polyamide membrane with enhanced flux rejection performance. Separation and Purification Technology, 89:245–251. Google Scholar
  42. Saleh TA, Gupta VK, 2014. Processing methods, characteristics and adsorption behavior of tire derived carbons: a review. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 211:93–101. Google Scholar
  43. Saravanan R, Thirumal E, Gupta VK, et al., 2013a. The photocatalytic activity of ZnO prepared by simple thermal decomposition method at various temperatures. Journal of Molecular Liquids, 177:394–401. Google Scholar
  44. Saravanan R, Gupta VK, Prakash T, et al., 2013b. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of novel Hg doped ZnO nanorods prepared by thermal decomposition method. Journal of Molecular Liquids, 178:88–93. Google Scholar
  45. Saravanan R, Karthikeyan N, Gupta VK, et al., 2013c. ZnO/Ag nanocomposite: an efficient catalyst for degradation studies of textile effluents under visible light. Materials Science and Engineering: C, 33(4):2235–2244. Google Scholar
  46. Saravanan R, Joicy S, Gupta VK, et al., 2013d. Visible light induced degradation of methylene blue using CeO2/V2O5 and CeO2/CuO catalysts. Materials Science and Engineering: C, 33(8):4725–4731. Google Scholar
  47. Saravanan R, Khan MM, Gupta VK, et al., 2015a. ZnO/Ag/CdO nanocomposite for visible light-induced photocatalytic degradation of industrial textile effluents. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 452:126–133. Google Scholar
  48. Saravanan R, Khan MM, Gupta VK, et al., 2015b. ZnO/Ag/Mn2O3 nanocomposite for visible light-induced industrial textile effluent degradation, uric acid and ascorbic acid sensing and antimicrobial activity. RSC Advances, 5(44):34645–34651. Google Scholar
  49. Saravanan R, Sacari E, Gracia F, et al., 2016. Conducting PANI stimulated ZnO system for visible light photocatalytic degradation of coloured dyes. Journal of Molecular Liquids, 221:1029–1033. Google Scholar
  50. Shuang Y, Wu CN, Yan BH, et al., 2010. Heat transfer inside particles and devolatilization for coal pyrolysis to acetylene at ultrahigh temperatures. Energy & Fuels, 24(5): 2991–2998. Google Scholar
  51. Sun X, 2006. Treatment of Electric Arc Furnace Dust by Microwave Heating. PhD Thesis, Michigan Technological University, Michigan, USA.Google Scholar
  52. Zeaiter J, Azizi F, Lameh M, et al., 2018. Waste tire pyrolysis using thermal solar energy: an integrated approach. Renewable Energy, 123:44–51. Google Scholar
  53. Zhou J, Yang YR, Ren XH, et al., 2006. Investigation of reinforcement of the modified carbon black from wasted tires by nuclear magnetic resonance. Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A, 7(8):1440–1446. Google Scholar
  54. Zhu WK, Song WL, Lin WG, 2008. Effect of the coal particle size on pyrolysis and char reactivity for two types of coal and demineralized coal. Energy & Fuels, 22(4):2482–2487. Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Zhejiang University and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Environmental and Safety EngineeringChangzhou UniversityChangzhouChina
  2. 2.Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Catalytic Materials and Technology, School of Petrochemical EngineeringChangzhou UniversityChangzhouChina
  3. 3.Advanced Catalysis and Green Manufacturing Collaborative Innovation CenterChangzhou UniversityChangzhouChina

Personalised recommendations