Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE A

, Volume 12, Issue 6, pp 415–427 | Cite as

Modified particle swarm optimization for optimum design of spread footing and retaining wall

  • Mohammad Khajehzadeh
  • Mohd Raihan Taha
  • Ahmed El-Shafie
  • Mahdiyeh Eslami


This paper deals with the economically optimized design and sensitivity of two of the most widely used systems in geotechnical engineering: spread footing and retaining wall. Several recent advanced optimization methods have been developed, but very few of these methods have been applied to geotechnical problems. The current research develops a modified particle swarm optimization (MPSO) approach to obtain the optimum design of spread footing and retaining wall. The algorithm handles the problem-specific constraints using a penalty function approach. The optimization procedure controls all geotechnical and structural design constraints while reducing the overall cost of the structures. To verify the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed algorithm, three case studies of spread footing and retaining wall are illustrated. Comparison of the results of the present method, standard PSO, and other selected methods employed in previous studies shows the reliability and accuracy of the algorithm. Moreover, the parametric performance is investigated in order to examine the effect of relevant variables on the optimum design of the footing and the retaining structure utilizing the proposed method.

Key words

Particle swarm optimization (PSO) Spread footing Retaining wall Sensitivity analysis 

CLC number

TU470 TU17 


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Copyright information

© Zhejiang University and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammad Khajehzadeh
    • 1
  • Mohd Raihan Taha
    • 2
  • Ahmed El-Shafie
    • 2
  • Mahdiyeh Eslami
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Civil Engineering, Anar BranchIslamic Azad UniversityAnarIran
  2. 2.Department of Civil and Structural EngineeringUniversity Kebangsaan MalaysiaSelangorMalaysia
  3. 3.Department of Electrical Engineering, Anar BranchIslamic Azad UniversityAnarIran

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