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Eggshell waste to produce building lime: calcium oxide reactivity, industrial, environmental and economic implications

Abstract

Eggshells wastes are produced in huge amounts worldwide. The recycling or valorization of this waste, which otherwise is usually disposed in landfills, represents an opportunity within a circular economy perspective. In the present work, the potential of chicken eggshell waste to produce calcitic lime was explored. After collection from an industry supplier, the waste was thoroughly characterized for its mineralogical, chemical, and thermal properties. The material was calcined at 1000 °C, and the obtained calcium oxide was evaluated for its reactivity in wet slaking tests. Comparison was made with commercial limestone used as reference. It was found that the calcium oxide from eggshell waste belonged to the most reactive class (R5—60 °C within 10 min), the same of the calcium oxide from limestone. However, different times were obtained to reach 60 °C (25 s and 4:37 min:s) and for 80% of the reaction (28 s and 5 min) for calcium oxide from limestone and eggshell waste, respectively. The lower reactivity of calcium oxide from eggshell waste was related to its larger size particles with smoother surfaces and lower specific surface area in comparison to limestone calcium oxide. Industrial, environmental and economic implications concerning the use of this waste to produce lime were also evaluated. The eggshell waste could be all consumed at an industrial scale in Portugal allowing for approximately 2.6% partial substitution of limestone in a lime factory.

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Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to Derovo - Derivados de Ovos, S.A. (Pombal, Portugal) and VAC Minerais, S.A. (Rio Maior, Portugal) for the supply of industrial chicken eggshell waste and commercial limestone, respectively. This research was supported by Sistema de Incentivos à Investigação e Desenvolvimento Tecnológico through Quadro de Referência Estratégica Nacional (QREN) and by Geobiotec R&D Unit (UID/GEO/04035/2013) financed by the Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT).

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Correspondence to José A. F. Gamelas.

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Appendix

Appendix

See Table 4, Figs. 6, 7.

Table 4 XRF data (minor elements) of the raw and lime materials from eggshell and limestone
Fig. 6
figure 6

Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) plot and derivative curve (DDSC) for the raw eggshell and limestone

Fig. 7
figure 7

Raman spectra of the raw eggshell and limestone

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Ferraz, E., Gamelas, J.A.F., Coroado, J. et al. Eggshell waste to produce building lime: calcium oxide reactivity, industrial, environmental and economic implications. Mater Struct 51, 115 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1617/s11527-018-1243-7

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1617/s11527-018-1243-7

Keywords

  • By-product
  • Quicklime
  • Wet slaking
  • Hydration rate
  • Induction periods
  • Colour