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Influence of mix parameters on pore properties and modulus of pervious concrete: an application of ultrasonic pulse velocity


The major objective of this study was to understand the influence of mix parameters on pore properties and modulus of control and silica fume (SF) modified pervious concrete mixtures with an application of ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) technique in defining the structural and hydrological properties. A total of twenty-four different pervious concrete mixtures were prepared encompassing three aggregate gradations with four aggregate sizes, and two levels each of water-to-cement (WC) and cement-to-aggregate (CA) ratios. Additionally, 5 % SF was used as partial replacement for cement to produce twelve SF modified pervious concrete mixes. It was found that permeability mainly depends on mix variables such as WC and CA ratios, and gradations since these factors control the interconnected pore structure of the pervious concrete mixes. Based on the measured mix properties, permeability predictive equation was developed, which followed Weibull distribution, and was mathematical robust with very good statistical goodness of fit measures (R 2adj  > 0.80; S e/S y = 0.432). The equation was rational indicative of the fact that porosity alone might not always be significant in defining permeability of the pervious concrete. UPV test technique employing a set of 55 kHz transducers was used to determine dynamic modulus of elasticity (E d) of all mixes, which yielded UPV in the range of 2750–3400 m/s, and E d in the range of 11–19 GPa. The findings were encouraging in that the estimated moduli using UPV were rational, which was also testimonial of the fact that this technique can be confidently used in future in the periodic evaluation of in-service pervious concrete pavements without having to retrieve field cores.

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The authors gratefully acknowledge the Government of India Ministry of Human Resource Development Department of Higher Education for financial support vide Future of Cities research project Grant Number F. No. 4-22/2014-TS.I, dated 23 January 2014.

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Correspondence to Krishna Prapoorna Biligiri.

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Chandrappa, A.K., Biligiri, K.P. Influence of mix parameters on pore properties and modulus of pervious concrete: an application of ultrasonic pulse velocity. Mater Struct 49, 5255–5271 (2016).

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  • Pervious concrete
  • Silica fume
  • Permeability
  • Ultrasonic pulse velocity
  • Water-to-cement ratio
  • Cement-to-aggregate ratio