Materials and Structures

, Volume 49, Issue 12, pp 4959–4973 | Cite as

Structural effects of steel reinforcement corrosion on statically indeterminate reinforced concrete members

  • Ignasi Fernandez
  • Manuel F. Herrador
  • Antonio R. Marí
  • Jesús Miguel Bairán
Original Article


Steel corrosion in reinforced concrete structures produces loss of reinforcement area and damage in the surrounding concrete. As a consequence, increases in deflections, crack widths and stresses may take place, as well as a reduction of the bearing capacity, which depends on the structural scheme and redundancy. In this paper an experimental study of twelve statically indeterminate beams subjected to different levels of forced reinforcement corrosion is presented. Different sustained loads were applied during the corrosion phase to assess their influence on the effects of corrosion. An important increase in deflections was registered in all corroded beams, especially in those subject to higher load levels. It was also found that the rate of corrosion was affected by the load level. Internal forces redistributions due to induced damage were measured. Finally, the experimental results were compared with those predicted by a non-linear time-dependent segmental analysis model developed by the authors, obtaining in general good agreement.


Statically indeterminate beam Reinforced concrete Steel corrosion Redistribution 



The authors wish to acknowledge the financial support of The Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness of the Government of Spain (MINECO) for providing funds for project BIA2009-11764 and the European Regional Development Funds (ERDF). The financial support of Infrastructures de Catalunya (ICAT) is also highly appreciated.


  1. 1.
    Fernandez I, Bairán JM, Marí AR (2015) Corrosion effects on the mechanical properties of reinforcing steel bars. Fatigue and σ–ε behavior. Constr Build Mater 101:772–783. doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.10.139 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Al-Sulaimani G, Kaleemullah M, Basunbul I (1990) Influence of corrosion and cracking on bond behavior and strength of reinforced concrete members. ACI Struct J 87(2):220–231Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Alonso C, Andrade C, Rodriguez J et al (1998) Factors controlling cracking of concrete affected by reinforcement corrosion. Mater Struct 31:435–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tutti K (1997) Corrosion of steel in concrete. Mater Sci Technol. doi: 10.4324/9780203414606_chapter_2 Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Broomfield J (2002) Corrosion of steel in concrete: understanding, investigation and repair, 2nd edn. Taylor & Francis, AbingdonGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Muñoz Noval A (2009) Comportamiento de vigas hiperestáticas de hormigón armado corroídas y reparadas con mortero: pérdida de propiedades mecánicas del acero de refuerzo y fisuración del recubrimiento de hormigón por corrosiónGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Malumbela G, Alexander M, Moyo P (2009) Steel corrosion on RC structures under sustained service loads—a critical review. Eng Struct 31:2518–2525. doi: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2009.07.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Malumbela G, Moyo P, Alexander M (2009) Behaviour of RC beams corroded under sustained service loads. Constr Build Mater 23:3346–3351. doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2009.06.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Biondini F, Vergani M (2014) Deteriorating beam finite element for nonlinear analysis of concrete structures under corrosion. Struct Infrastruct Eng 11:519–532. doi: 10.1080/15732479.2014.951863 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ferreira D, Bairán J, Marí A, Faria R (2013) Nonlinear analysis of RC beams using a hybrid shear-flexural fibre beam model. Eng Comput 31:1444–1483. doi: 10.1108/EC-04-2013-0114 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Marí AR, Asce M, Oller E, Bairán JM (2011) Predicting the response of FRP-strengthened reinforced-concrete flexural members with nonlinear evolutive analysis models. J Compos Constr 15:799–809. doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)CC.1943-5614.0000214 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Monti BG, Filippou FC, Member A, Spacone E (1997) Finite element for anchored bars under cyclic load reversals. J Struct Eng 123(5):614–623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mohr S, Bairán JM, Marí AR (2010) A frame element model for the analysis of reinforced concrete structures under shear and bending. Eng Struct 32:3936–3954. doi: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2010.09.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    El Maaddawy TEA, Soudki KKA (2003) Effectiveness of impressed current technique to simulate corrosion of steel reinforcement in concrete. J Mater Civ Eng 15(1):41–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Caré S, Nguyen QT, L’Hostis V, Berthaud Y (2008) Mechanical properties of the rust layer induced by impressed current method in reinforced mortar. Cem Concr Res 38:1079–1091. doi: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2008.03.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lu C, Jin W, Liu R (2011) Reinforcement corrosion-induced cover cracking and its time prediction for reinforced concrete structures. Corros Sci 53:1337–1347. doi: 10.1016/j.corsci.2010.12.026 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Marí AR (2000) Numerical simulation of the segmental construction of three dimensional concrete frames. Eng Struct 22:585–596. doi: 10.1016/S0141-0296(99)00009-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Badawi M, Soudki K (2005) Control of corrosion-induced damage in reinforced concrete beams using carbon fiber-reinforced polymer laminates. J Compos Constr 9:195–201. doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0268(2005)9:2(195) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Saifullah M, Clark LLA, Sailfullah M, Clark LLA (1994) Effect of corrosion rate on the bond strength of corroded reinforcement. In: Press SA (ed) Proceedings of the international conference corrosion and corrosion protection of steel in concrete. University of Sheffield, pp 591–600Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    ASTM Standard G1 (2011) Standard practice for preparing, cleaning, and evaluating corrosion test specimensGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cairns J, Coakley E (2015) Deformation of continuous reinforced concrete beams during patch repair. Struct Concr 11(3):149–160Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Malumbela G, Alexander M, Moyo P (2010) Interaction between corrosion crack width and steel loss in RC beams corroded under load. Cem Concr Res 40:1419–1428. doi: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2010.03.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Quagliaroli M (2014) From bidimensional towards monodimensional modeling of sound and damaged reinforced concrete structuresGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Biondini F, Bontempi F, Frangopol DM, Malerba PG (2004) Cellular automata approach to durability analysis of concrete structures in aggressive environments. J Struct Eng 130:1724–1737CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© RILEM 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Construction EngineeringPolytechnic University of CataloniaBarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.Department of Construction TechnologyUniversidade da CoruñaA CoruñaSpain

Personalised recommendations