Skip to main content

Minimum shear reinforcement ratio of steel plate concrete beams


Steel plate Concrete (SC) has been used for the shield building in nuclear power plant AP1000 recently. However, the minimum shear reinforcement ratio for SC beams is unknown. This paper reports that six steel plate concrete beams were tested to determine the minimum shear reinforcement ratio \((\rho_{t,\hbox{min} } )\) to ensure a certain shear ductility. The main parameters of the experimental program include shear reinforcement ratio \((\rho_{{t,{\text{test}}}} )\) and shear span-to-depth ratio (a/d). Currently no minimum shear reinforcement ratio of SC beams is proposed in any technical document. Designers quite often use the provision of reinforced concrete (RC) structures specified by ACI 349 code (2006) for SC structure design. Based on the test results, a minimum shear reinforcement ratio of SC beams is proposed, which is greater than a minimum shear reinforcement ratio specified by ACI 349 code. Existing approaches to predict shear strength of RC members, ACI method (2006) and Kuo et al. method (2014), were evaluated and were found to overestimate the shear strength of SC beams because bond slip between steel plate and concrete weakens the shear capacity. In addition, the Model Code (2010) was compared with the test results and was found very conservative. A method is recommended to estimate shear strength of SC beams with a reasonable accuracy.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16
Fig. 17
Fig. 18
Fig. 19
Fig. 20
Fig. 21


  1. 1.

    Yamamoto T, Katoh A, Chikazawa Y, Negishi K (2012) Design evaluation method of steel-plate reinforced concrete structure containment vessel for sodium-cooled fast reactor. J Disaster Res 7(5):645–655

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Tolloczko J (2001) Bi-steel in tall buildings. New Steel Constr 9(6):34–35

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Yan J, Liew JR, Zhang M, Sohel K (2014) Experimental and analytical study on ultimate strength behavior of steel-concrete-steel sandwich composite beam structures. MaterStruct 48(5):1–22

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Zhang, W. (2009) Study on mechanical behavior and design of composite segment for shield tunnel. Ph. D. Dissertation, Waseda University, Tokyo

  5. 5.

    Yan J (2014) Finite element analysis on steel–concrete–steel sandwich beams. Mater Struct 48(6):1–23

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Tesser L, Scotta R (2013) Flexural and shear capacity of composite steel truss and concrete beams with inferior precast concrete base. Eng Struct 49(2013):135–145. doi:10.1016/j.engstruct.2012.11.004

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Colajanni P, La Mendola L, Monaco A (2014) Stress transfer mechanism investigation in hybrid steel trussed–concrete beams by push-out tests. J Constr Steel Res 95(2014):56–70. doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2013.11.025

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Tullini N, Minghini F (2013) Nonlinear analysis of composite beams with concrete-encased steel truss. J Constr Steel Res 91(2013):1–13. doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2013.08.011

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Hossain KMA, Wright H (2004) Performance of double skin-profiled composite shear walls-experiments and design equations. Can J Civ Eng 31(2):204–217

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Sohel KMA, Richard Liew JY, Yan JB, Zhang MH, Chia KS (2012) Behavior of steel–concrete–steel sandwich structures with lightweight cement composite and novel shear connectors. Compos Struct 94(12):3500–3509. doi:10.1016/j.compstruct.2012.05.023

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Subedi N (2003) Double skin steel/concrete composite beam elements: experimental testing. Struct Eng 81(21):30–35

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Yan J, Liew JR, Sohel K, Zhang M (2014) Push-out tests on J-hook connectors in steel–concrete–steel sandwich structure. Mater Struct 47:1693–1714

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Xie M, Foundoukos N, Chapman J (2007) Static tests on steel-concrete-steel sandwich beams. J Constr Steel Res 63(6):735–750

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Ramesh, S. (2013) Behavior and design of earthquake-resistant dual-plate composite shear wall systems, Ph. D. Dissertation, Purdue University, West Lafayette

  15. 15.

    Oesterle RG, Russell HG (1982) Research status and needs for shear tests on large-scale reinforced concrete containment elements. Nucl Eng Des 69(2):187–194

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Walther, H. P. (1990) Evaluation of behavior and the radial shear strength of a reinforced concrete containment structure, Ph. D. Dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign

  17. 17.

    ACI Committee 349 (2006) Code requirements for nuclear safety-related concrete structures: (ACI 349-06) and commentary. American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills

    Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Narayan RR, Robert TM, Naji FJ (1994) Design guide for steel-concrete-steel sandwich construction. Steel Construction Institute, West Berkshire

    Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    JEAG (2005), Technical guidelines for aseismic design of steel plate reinforced concrete structures-buildings and structures. Nuclear standards committee, japan electric association, transactions of JEAG 4618, Translated from Japanese by Obayashi Company and Westinghouse Electric Company

  20. 20.

    ACI Committee 318 (2005) Building code requirements for structural concrete (ACI 318-11) and commentary. American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills

    Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    ANSI (2012) Specification for Safety-related Steel Structures for Nuclear Facilities (ANSI/AISC N690-12). American Institute of Steel Construction Inc, Chicago

    Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Varma, A. H., K. C. Sener, K. Zhang, K. Coogler and S. R. Malushte (2011) Out-of-plane shear behavior of SC composite structures. International Association for Structural Mechanics in Reactor Technology 21. New Delhi

  23. 23.

    Kani GNJ (1964) The riddle of shear failure and its solution. ACI J Proc 64(4):441–467

    Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Laskar A, Hsu TTC, Mo YL (2010) Shear strengths of prestressed concrete beams Part 1: experiments and shear design equations. ACI Struct J 107(3):330–339

    Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    ASTM (2014) Standard specification for high-strength low-alloy columbium-vanadium structural steel (A572/A572 M-13a). ASTM, West Conshohocken

    Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Kuo WW, Hsu TTC, Hwang SJ (2014) Shear strength of reinforced concrete beams. ACI Struct J 111(4):809–818

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Fédération Internationale du Béton (fib) (2013) fib model code for concrete structures 2010. Wilhelm Ernst & Sohn., Berlin

    Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Sigrist V, Bentz E, Ruiz MF, Foster S, Muttoni A (2013) Background to the fib Model Code 2010 shear provisions—part I: beams and slabs. Struct Concr 14(3):195–203. doi:10.1002/suco.201200066

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Bentz EC (2006) Summary of development and use of CSA 2004 shear design provisions. Adv Eng Struct Mech Constr 140:67–80

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Hsu TT, Laskar A, Mo Y (2010) Shear strengths of prestressed concrete beams Part 2: comparisons with ACI and AASHTO provisions. ACI Struct J 107(03):340–345

    Google Scholar 

Download references


The research described in this paper is financially supported by U.S. Department of Energy NEUP program (Project No. CFP-13-5282) and the Chinese National Natural Science Foundation (Grant No.: 51308155). The opinions expressed in this study are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsor.

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Y. L. Mo.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Qin, F., Tan, S., Yan, J. et al. Minimum shear reinforcement ratio of steel plate concrete beams. Mater Struct 49, 3927–3944 (2016).

Download citation


  • Minimum shear reinforcement ratio
  • Steel plate concrete
  • Cross tie
  • Shear failure
  • Flexural failure