Bond behavior of steel reinforcement in high-performance fiber-reinforced cementitious composite flexural members


High-performance fiber-reinforced cementitious composites (HPFRCCs) exhibit a pseudo strain hardening behavior in tension, and increased damage tolerance when loaded in compression. The unique properties of HPFRCC materials make them a viable material for increasing structural performance under severe loading conditions. In this paper, the bond performance of mild steel reinforcement embedded in HPFRCC beams is presented. Beam specimens with lap splices were tested in four-point bending to examine the bond strength and bond-slip behavior of steel reinforcement embedded in HPFRCC materials. Specimens made with three different HPFRCC mixtures, as well as a traditional normal weight concrete were tested in four point bending. The parameters investigated were the amount of concrete cover and the presence of steel confinement in the lap splice region. Experimental results show that HPFRCC normalized bond strengths increased by 37 %, on average, when compared to concrete. Furthermore, the bond-slip behavior of reinforcement in HPFRCCs had a higher toughness than observed for concrete specimens. Test results are compared with existing bond-slip models for fiber reinforced concrete from beam tests and HPFRCCs from pullout experiments, and a recommendation to modify the ascending branch of an existing bond-slip model applicable to ductile HPFRCCs is proposed.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8


  1. 1.

    Naaman AE, Reinhardt HW (2006) Proposed classification of hpfrc composites based on their tensile response. Mater Struct 39(5):547–555

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Liao WC, Chao SH, Park SY, Naaman AE (2006) Self-consolidating high performance fiber reinforced concrete (SCHPFRC)—preliminary investigation. Technical report UMCEE 06–02, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA

  3. 3.

    Fischer G, Li VC (2002) Effect of matrix ductility on deformation behavior of steel-reinforced ECC flexural members under reversed cyclic loading conditions. ACI Struct J 99(6):781–790

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Kesner KE, Billington SL, Douglas KS (2003) Cyclic response of highly ductile fiber-reinforced cement-based composites. ACI Mater J 100(5):381–390

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Rouse M, Billington SL (2003) Behavior of bride piers with ductile fiber reinforced hinge regions and vertical. Unbonded post-tensioning. In: Fib symposium, concrete structures in seismic regions, Greece

  6. 6.

    Parra-Montesinos GJ, Peterfreund SW, Chao SH (2005) Highly damage-tolerant beam-column joints through use of high-performance fiber-reinforced cement composites. ACI Struct J 102(5):487–495

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Olsen EC, Billington SL (2011) Cyclic response of precast high-performance fiber-reinforced concrete infill panels. ACI Struct J 108(1):51–60

    Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Parra-Montesinos GJ (2005) High-performance fiber-reinforced cement composites: an alternative for seismic design of structures. ACI Struct J 102(5):668–675

    Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Li VC (2003) On engineered cementitious composites (ECC) a review of the material and its applications. J Adv Concr Technol 1(3):215–230

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Orangun CO, Jirsa JO, Breen JE (1977) A reevaluation of test data on development length and splices. J Am Concr Inst 74(3):114–122

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Lowes LN, Moehle JP, Govindjee S (2004) Concrete-steel bond model for use in finite element modeling of reinforced concrete structures. ACI Struct J 101(4):501–511

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    ACI Comittee 408 (2003) Bond and development of straight reinforcing bars in tension. Technical report ACI 408R–03, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA

  13. 13.

    fib Task Group 4.5 (2000) Bond of reinforcement in concrete. Technical report fib bulletin no. 10, The International Federation for Structural Concrete, Lausanne, Switzerland

  14. 14.

    Chinn J, Ferguson PM, Thompson JN (1955) Lapped splices in reinforced concrete beams. ACI J Proc 52(15):201–213

    Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Hamza AM, Naaman AE (1996) Bond characteristics of deformed reinforcing steel bars embedded in SIFCON. ACI Mater J 93(6):1–11

    Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Harajli MH, Hamad BS, Karam K (2002) Bond-slip response of reinforcing bars embedded in plain and fiber concrete. J Mater Civil Eng 14(6):503–511

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Harajli MH (2006) Effect of confinement using steel, FRC, or FRP on the bond stress-slip response of steel bars under cyclic loading. Mater Struct 39(6):621–634

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Chao SH, Naaman AE, Parra-Montesinos GJ (2009) Bond behavior of reinforcing bars in tensile strain-hardening fiber-reinforced cement composites. ACI Struct J 106(6):897–906

    Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Chao SH, Naaman AE, Parra-Montesinos GJ (2010) Local bond stress-slip models for reinforcing bars and prestressing strands in high-performance fiber-reinforced cement composites. ACI SP-272, 151–172

  20. 20.

    Panagiotou M, Trono W, Jen G, Kumar P, Ostertag CP (2014) Experimental seismic response of hybrid fiber-reinforced concrete bridge columns with novel longitudinal reinforcement detailing. ASCE J Bridge Eng

  21. 21.

    Moreno DM, Trono W, Jen G, Ostertag C, Billington SL (2014) Tension stiffening in reinforced high performance fiber reinforced cement-based composites. Cem Concr Compos 50(2014):36–46

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Li VC, Leung CKY (1992) Steady-state and multiple cracking of short random fiber composites. J Eng Mech 118(11):2246–2264

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Lepech MD, Li VC, Robertson RE, Keoleian GA (2008) Design of green engineered cementitious composites for improved sustainability. ACI Mater J 105(6):567–575

    Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Kumar P, Jen G, Trono W, Panagiotou M, Ostertag CP (2011) Self compacting hybrid fiber reinforced concrete composites for bridge columns. Technical report PEER report 2011/106, Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California, Berkeley, California, USA

  25. 25.

    ASTM Standard C1609. Standard test method for flexural performance of fiber-reinforced concrete (using beam with third-point loading)

  26. 26.

    Moreno DM, Trono W, Jen G, Ostertag C, Billington SL (2011) Tension-stiffening in reinforced high performance fiber-reinforced cement-based composites under direct tension. In: high performance fiber reinforced cement composites, vol 6. Springer, pp 263–270

  27. 27.

    Trono W, Jen G, Moreno D, Billington S, Ostertag C (2011) Confinement and tension stiffening effects in high performance self-consolidated hybrid fiber reinforced concrete composites. In: High performance fiber reinforced cement composites, vol 6. Springer, pp 255–262

  28. 28.

    Harajli MH (2009) Bond stress slip model for steel bars in unconfined or steel, FRC, or FRP confined concrete. J Struct Eng 135(5):509–518

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Bandelt MJ, Billington SL (2014) Monotonic and cyclic bond-slip behavior of ductile high-performance fiber-reinforced cement-based composites. In: Proceedings of the third international RILEM conference on strain hardening cementitious composites (SHCC-3), Delft, Netherlands

  30. 30.

    Bandelt MJ and Billington SL (2014) Simulating bond-slip effects in high-performance fiber-reinforced cement based composites under cyclic loads. In Proceedings of Computational Modelling of Concrete Structures (EURO-C 2014), vol 2. St. Anton am Arlberg, Austria, pp 1059–1066

Download references


The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the John A. Blume Earthquake Engineering Center at Stanford University. Funding for the first author was provided by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program. The authors wish to thank Albert Alix, Undergraduate Research Assistant, and Dr. Daniel Moreno-Luna, former Graduate Research Assistant, from Stanford University for their help with specimen fabrication and testing. The authors also appreciate the collaboration and efforts of graduate researchers Gabriel Jen and Will Trono, and Prof. Claudia Ostertag, University of California, Berkeley, for their help with casting the SC-HyFRC specimens.

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Matthew J. Bandelt.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Bandelt, M.J., Billington, S.L. Bond behavior of steel reinforcement in high-performance fiber-reinforced cementitious composite flexural members. Mater Struct 49, 71–86 (2016).

Download citation


  • High-performance fiber-reinforced cementitious composites
  • Bond-slip
  • Bond stress
  • Reinforcement slip
  • Splice
  • Confinement