Materials and Structures

, Volume 47, Issue 1–2, pp 367–379 | Cite as

Load bearing capacities of cold formed steel sections subjected to axial load

Original Article


The paper describes a test program on cold-formed axially compressed steel members. Research has been conducted in order to explain how cold working technology causes considerable enhancement of the material properties in finished element, comparing to the base material. In analysis, we have used results obtained with experimental and numerical methods. “PAK” software, designed for nonlinear finite element analysis of structures, derived results for ultimate bearing capacity with corresponding force–deflection graphs and buckling curves. These results are compared with those obtained in experiments on built-up members. Experiments were conducted on five series each with six specimens with global slenderness values of 50, 70, 90, 110 and 120. Compressed members were analyzed on Amsler Spherical pin support with unique electronically equipment and software. As well as force–deflection curves stress values for several cross sections along the height of the members were also determined. Both groups of results (numerical and experimental) were compared with European buckling curves. These give the value for the reduction factor of the resistance of the column as a function of the reference slenderness for different kinds of cross-sections (referred to different values of the imperfection factor).


Axially compressed cold formed members Experimental analysis Finite element method Buckling curves Carbon steel Stainless highstrength steel 


  1. 1.
    American Iron and Steel Institute (2007) AISI S100-07 w/S2-10—North American specification for the design of cold-formed steel structural members. AISI, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    ASCE (1991) Specification for the design of cold-formed stainless steel structural members/ANSI/ASCE-8-90. ASCE (American Society of Civil Engineers), New York. ISBN 978-0-87292-794-9Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Aust/NZS (2001) Cold-formed stainless steel structures/Australian/New Zealand Standard, AS/NZS 4673:2001. Standards Australia, SydneyGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Besevic M (1999) Contribution to the analysis of centrically compressed members made from cold formed profiles. Dissertation, Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of BelgradeGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Besevic M (2011) Analysis of structural changes in cold formed steel profiles occurred as a result of production technology. J Mater Civ Eng 23:1369–1375. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)MT.1943-5533.0000311
  6. 6.
    Bešević M (2012) Experimental investigation of residual stresses in cold formed steel sections. Int J Steel Compos Struct 12(6):465–489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cruise RB, Gardner L (2008) Residual stress analysis of structural stainless steel section. J Constr Steel Res 64:325–366Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cruise RB, Gardner L (2008) Strength enhancements induced during cold-forming of stainless steel sections. J Constr Steel Res 64:1310–1316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ellobady E, Young B (2005) Structural performance of cold-formed high strength stainless steel columns. J Constr Steel Res 61:1631–1649. doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2005.05.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ellobody E (2007) Buckling analysis of high strength stainless steel stiffened and unstiffened slender hollow section columns. J Constr Steel Res 63:145–155. doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2006.04.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Eurocode 3 (1996) Design of steel structures, part 1.4: Supplementary rules for stainless steels. ENV 1993-1-4, CEN (1996). European Committee for Standardization, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Eurocode 3 (2005) Design of steel structure—part 1-8: design of joints—European Committee for Standardization/EN 1993-1-8:2005. Institution of Civil Engineers (ICE), LondonGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gao L, Sun H, Jin F, Fan H (2008) Load-carrying capacity of high-strength box—section I: stub columns. J Constr Steel Res. doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2008.07.002
  14. 14.
    Gardner L, Nethercot DA (2004) Experiments on stainless steel hollow sections—part 1: material and cross-sectional behavior. J Constr Steel Res 60:1291–1318. doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2003.11.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Goggins JM, Broderick BM, Elghazouli AY, Lucas AS (2006) Behavior of tubular steel members under cyclic axial loading. J Constr Steel Res 62:121–131. doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2005.04.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jandera M, Gardner L, Machacek J (2008) Residual stresses in cold-rolled stainless steel hollow section. J Constr Steel Res 64(11):1255–1263. doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2008.07.022 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Liu Y, Young B (2003) Buckling of stainless steel square hollow section compression members. J Constr Steel Res 59:165–177. doi:10.1016/SO143-974X(02)00031-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Narayanan S, Mahendran M (2003) Ultimate capacity of innovative cold-formed steel columns. J Constr Steel Res 59:489–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sedlacek G, Muler C (2006) The European standard family and its basis. J Constr Steel Res 62:1047–1059. doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2006.06.027 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Young B, Lui WM (2006) Tests of cold-formed high strength stainless steel compression members. Thin-Walled Struct 44:224–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© RILEM 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Civil Engineering SuboticaUniversity of Novi SadSuboticaSerbia

Personalised recommendations