Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Strain and thermal expansion coefficients of various cement pastes during hydration at early ages

  • 642 Accesses

  • 12 Citations


Cement pastes undergo elevated temperature histories due to hydration heat liberation at early ages. Thermal expansion coefficients of cement paste and concrete change with age, showing a decrease after mixing, a subsequent minimum and then a gradual increase. These changes contribute to thermal strain. In this study, effects of water–cement ratio and cement type on volume changes in early-age cement pastes were experimentally examined using a newly developed apparatus capable of simultaneously determining both thermal expansion coefficient and total strain of cement pastes. The dependence of the thermal expansion coefficient on hydration was affected by water–cement ratio, cement type, elevated temperature history and particularly by the free water content of the cement pastes, while the relationship between thermal expansion coefficient and free water content varied with water–cement ratio. A notable increase in thermal expansion coefficient at early ages was observed when water–cement ratio was low and alite content in cement was high. At a water–cement ratio of 0.30, low-heat Portland cement paste resulted in a small total strain while moderate-heat and ordinary Portland cement pastes showed larger strains. Because no particular difference was observed in the thermal strains, shrinkage in the low-heat Portland cement paste was attributed to autogenous strain. At a water–cement ratio of 0.40, self-desiccation had a significant influence upon autogenous shrinkage and dependence of thermal expansion coefficient on hydration, and the effect of the mineral composition of cements was notable. However, for cement pastes with a water cement ratio of 0.55, no significant effects of self-desiccation were observed, probably because considerable excess water was present.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9


  1. 1.

    ACI207 Committee (1970) Mass concrete for dams and other massive structures. ACI J 67:273–309

  2. 2.

    ACI207 Committee (1973) Effect of restraint, volume change, and reinforcement on cracking of massive concrete. ACI J 70:445–470

  3. 3.

    ASTM Committee C-9 (1978) Significance of tests and properties of concrete and concrete-making materials. ASTM special technical publication 169 B, 2nd edn. Ann Arbor, Michigan, pp 226–241

  4. 4.

    Bjøntegaard Ø, Sellevold EJ (2001) Interaction between thermal dilation and autogenous deformation in high performance concrete. Mater Struct 34:266–272

  5. 5.

    Chern J-C, Chan Y-W (1989) Deformations of concretes made with blast-furnace slag cement and ordinary Portland cement. ACI Mater J 86:372–382

  6. 6.

    Grasley ZC, Lange DA (2007) Thermal dilation and internal relative humidity of hardened cement paste. Mater Struct 40:311–317

  7. 7.

    Japan Concrete Institute (2008) Guidelines for control of cracking of mass concrete. JCI, pp 48–54 (in Japanese)

  8. 8.

    Kada H, Lachemi M, Petrov N, Bonneau O, Aitcin P-C (2002) Determination of the coefficient of thermal expansion of high performance concrete from initial setting. Mater Struct 35:35–41

  9. 9.

    Loser R, Münch B, Lura P (2010) A volumetric technique for measuring the coefficient of thermal expansion of hardening cement paste and mortar. Cement Concr Res 40:1138–1147

  10. 10.

    Loukili A, Chopin A, Khelidj A, Le Touzo J-Y (2000) A new approach to determine autogenous shrinkage of mortar at an early age considering temperature history. Cement Concr Res 30:915–922

  11. 11.

    Maruyama I, Teramoto A (2011) Impact of time-dependent thermal expansion coefficient on the early-age volume change in cement pastes. Cement Concr Res 41:380–391

  12. 12.

    Meyers SI (1950) Thermal expansion characteristics of hardened cement paste and of concrete. Highway Res Board Proc 30:193–203

  13. 13.

    Neville AM (1963) Properties of concrete. Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons Ltd., London, pp 374–375

  14. 14.

    Ozawa M, Morimoto H (2006) Estimation method for thermal expansion coefficient of concrete at early ages. In: Lura P, Jensen O, Kovler K (eds) RILEM international conference of volume changes of hardening concrete, 20–23 August 2006, Lyngby, Denmark, pp 331–339

  15. 15.

    RILEM (1982) Proceedings of international conference on concrete at early ages, vol 2. RILEM, Paris

  16. 16.

    Sarkis M, Granju JL, Arnaud M, Escadeillas G (2002) Coefficient de dilation thermique d’un mortier frais. Mater Struct 35:415–420

  17. 17.

    Sellevold EJ, Bjøntegaad Ø (2006) Coefficient of thermal expansion of cement paste and concrete: mechanisms of moisture interaction. Mater Struct 39:809–815

  18. 18.

    Viviani M, Glisic B, Smith IFC (2007) Separation of thermal and autogenous deformation at varying temperature using optical fiber sensors. Cement Concr Comp 29:435–447

  19. 19.

    Yang Y, Sato R (2002) A new approach for evaluation of autogenous shrinkage of high strength concrete under heat of hydration. In: Persson B, Fagerland G (eds) Self-desiccation and its importance in concrete technology, 14–15 June 2002, Lund, Sweden, pp 51–65

  20. 20.

    Zoldners NG (1971) Thermal properties of concrete under sustained elevated temperatures. ACI Special Publ 25:1–32

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Ippei Maruyama.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Maruyama, I., Teramoto, A. & Igarashi, G. Strain and thermal expansion coefficients of various cement pastes during hydration at early ages. Mater Struct 47, 27–37 (2014).

Download citation


  • Portland cement paste
  • Thermal expansion coefficient
  • Shrinkage
  • Temperature history