Saturated surface-dry condition of fine aggregate has been well defined in mortar and concrete production as the dry mass percentage moisture content where aggregate particles are saturated. However in soil–cement concrete construction, no mix design based on the saturated surface-dry condition of soil was attempted partly because the control of soil moisture on site is difficult. We have proposed the definition and testing methods of the saturated surface-dry condition of soil in the previous papers. In this paper, we introduce the concept of effective unit water to the soil–cement concrete mix design and propose a mix design method for soil-sand-cement systems. Strength and density of the soil–cement concretes were determined and discussed. A number of mixes were proportioned with accurate control of composition (C/W, soil/sand ratio, free water, etc.) and consistency. It was found that strength can be determined by C/W for a wide variety of clayey soils in various soil/sand ratios except for a soil with very high content of organic material. A set of nomograms for C/W versus strength and soil/sand versus strength were presented for future proportioning.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Kawamura M, Kasai Y (2000) Methods to determine the saturated surface-dry condition of soils. Geotech High Water Content Mater STP1374:196–208
Kawamura M, Kasai Y (2010) Determination of saturated surface-dry condition of clay-sand mixed soils for soil-cement concrete construction. Mater Struct 43:571–582
Babasaki R, Terashi M, Suzuki T, Maekawa A, kawamura M, Fukazawa E (1996) JGS TC report: factors influencing the strength of improved soil. In: Proceedings of IS TOKYO’96/second international conference on ground improvement geosystems, grouting and deep mixing, 2, Japanese Geotechnical Society Technical Committee Reports, pp 913–918
Fujii M, Jinno K, Ijyuin H (1992) On the uniaxial compressive strength of soil-cement concrete with ordinary Portland cement. J Struct Construct Eng Architect Inst Japan 441:9–16 (in Japanese)
Japan Geotechnical Society (2000) Soil tests: method and commentary (in Japanese)
Kawamura M, Kasai Y (1998) Mixture proportions, strength and density of soil-cement concrete using various binders and new soil moisture evaluation system. In: Proceedings of the 4th Beijing international symposium on cement and concrete, pp 184–189
Kawai T, Kawamura M, Kasai Y (2000) Properties of bonding, weathering, bending of beam of bamboo reinforced soil-cement concrete. Trans Jpn Concr Inst 22:451–464 (in Japanese)
About this article
Cite this article
Kawamura, M., Kasai, Y. Mix design and strength of soil–cement concrete based on the effective water concept. Mater Struct 44, 529–540 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1617/s11527-010-9647-z