Advertisement

Materials and Structures

, 51:19 | Cite as

Brazilian disk test and digital image correlation: a methodology for the mechanical characterization of brittle materials

  • E. Sgambitterra
  • C. Lamuta
  • S. CandamanoEmail author
  • L. Pagnotta
Original Article

Abstract

In this paper, an optimized and reliable approach for the evaluation of the mechanical properties of brittle materials is proposed and applied to the characterization of geopolymer mortars. In particular, the Young’s modulus, the Poisson’s ratio and the tensile strength are obtained by means of a Brazilian disk test combined with the digital image correlation (DIC) technique. The mechanical elastic properties are evaluated by a special routine, based on an over-deterministic method and the least square regression, that allows to fit the displacement fields experienced by the samples during the experiment. Error sources, like center of the disk location and rigid-body motion components, were analyzed and estimated automatically with the proposed procedure in order to perform an accurate evaluation of the elastic constants. The strain field measured by DIC and the computed elastic properties were then used to perform a local stresses analysis. This latter was exploited to investigate the failure mechanisms and to evaluate the tensile strength of the investigated material and the obtained data were compared with those predicted by the ASTM and ISMR standards. Three different loading platens (flat, rod and curved) were adopted for the Brazilian test in order to evaluate their effect on the elastic properties calculation, on the failure mechanisms and tensile strength evaluation. Results reveal that the curve platens are the most suitable for the tensile strength calculation, whereas the elastic properties did not show any influence from the loading configuration. Furthermore, the proposed procedure, of easy implementation, allows to accurately calculate Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio and the tensile strength of brittle materials in a single experiment.

Keywords

Brazilian disk test Digital image correlation Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio Tensile strength Inverse problem Geopolymer 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to thank “MaTeRiA Laboratory” (University of Calabria), funded with “Pon Ricerca e Competitività 2007/2013”, for providing equipment to perform the experiments.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This chapter does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

11527_2018_1145_MOESM1_ESM.docx (5 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 5073 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Carneiro FLLB (1943) A new method to determine the tensile strength of concrete. Paper presented at the proceedings of the 5th meeting of the Brazilian association for technical rules, 3d. sectionGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Akazawa T (1943) New test method for evaluating internal stress due to compression of concrete: the splitting tension test. J Jpn Soc Civ Eng 29:777–787Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    ASTM C496 (1984) Standard test method for splitting tensile strength of cylindrical concrete specimens, vol 0.042. Annual Book of ASTM, Standards. ASTM, Philadelphia, pp 336–341Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fairhurst C (1964) On the validity of the ‘Brazilian’ test for brittle materials. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstr 1(4):535–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hooper JA (1971) The failure of glass cylinders in diametral compression. J Mech Phys Solids 19(4):179–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hudson JA, Brown ET, Rummel F (1972) The controlled failure of rock discs and rings loaded in diametral compression. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstr 9(2):241–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Swab JJ, Yu J, Gamble R, Kilczewski S (2011) Analysis of the diametral compression method for determining the tensile strength of transparent magnesium aluminate spinel. Int J Fract 172:187–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Li Diyuan, Wong Louis Ngai Yuen (2016) The Brazilian disc test for rock mechanics application: review and new insight. Rock Mech Rock Eng 46:269–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wang QZ, Jia XM, Kou SQ, Zhang ZX, Lindqvist PA (2004) The flattened Brazilian disc specimen used for testing elastic modulus, tensile strength and fracture toughness of brittle rocks: analytical and numerical results. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 41:245–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    ISRM (1978) Suggested methods for determining tensile strength of rock materials. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 15(3):99–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cardenas-Garcia JF (2001) The Moiré circular disc: two inverse problems. Mech Res Commun 28(4):381–387CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wang Z, Cardenas-Garcia JF, Han B (2004) Inverse method to determine elastic constants using a circular disk and Moiré interferometry. Exp Mech 45(1):27–34Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Khlifi I, Dupré JC, Doumalin P, Belrhiti Y, Pop O, Huger M (2017) Improvement of digital image correlation for the analysis of the fracture behaviour of Refractories. In: 23ème Congrès Français de Mécanique, Lille, 28 Aug–Sept 2017Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lai S, Shi L, Fok A, Li H, Sun L, Zhang Z (2017) A new method to measure crack extension in nuclear graphite based on digital image correlation. Sci Technol Nucl Install 2017:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Stirling RA, Simpson DJ, Davie CT (2013) The application of digital image correlation to Brazilian testing of sandstone. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 60:1–11Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Liu C (2010) Elastic constants determination and deformation observation using Brazilian disk geometry. Exp Mech 50:1025–1039CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hild F, Roux S (2006) Digital image correlation: from displacement measurement to identification of elastic properties—a review. Strain 42:69–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Timoshenko S, Goodier J (1970) Theory of elasticity, 3rd edn. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc, New YorkzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Markides ChF, Pazis DN, Kourkoulis SK (2010) Closed full-field solutions for stresses and displacements in the Brazilian disk under distributed radial load. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 47:227–237CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kourkoulis SK, Markides ChF, Chatzistergos PE (2012) The Brazilian disc under parabolically varying load: theoretical and experimental study of the displacement field. Int J Solids Struct 49:959–972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Muskhelishvili HN (1958) Some basic problems in mathematic elastic mechanics (Translated by Zhao Huiyuan). Science Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Davidovits J (1982) Mineral polymers and methods for making them, US Patent 4; 349,386Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lamuta C, Candamano S, Crea F, Pagnotta L (2016) Direct piezoelectric effect in geopolymeric mortars. Mater Des 107:57–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Duxson P, Fernández Jiménez A, Provis JL, Lukey GC, Palomo A, van Deventer JSJ (2007) Geopolymer technology: the current state of the art. J Mater Sci 42:2917–2933CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    C. Solutions (2009) VIC-2D Testing GuideGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    ASTM C 1161-02c (2003) Standard test method for flexural strength of advanced ceramics at ambient temperatureGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ajovalasit A (2006) Analisi Sperimentale delle tensioni con gli estensimetri elettrici a resistenza. Aracne Editrice S.r.l, RomaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© RILEM 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical, Energy and Management Engineering - DIMEGUniversity of CalabriaArcavacata di RendeItaly
  2. 2.Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and TechnologyUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignUrbanaUSA
  3. 3.Department of Environmental and Chemical Engineering - DIATICUniversity of CalabriaArcavacata di RendeItaly

Personalised recommendations