Materials and Structures

, 50:129 | Cite as

Effect of crumb rubber gradation on asphalt binder modification: rheological evaluation, optimization and selection

  • Veena Venudharan
  • Krishna Prapoorna BiligiriEmail author
Original Article


The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of various crumb rubber (CR) gradations on asphalt binder performance leading to the development of a rational asphalt-rubber (AR) binder selection procedure. The scope encompassed advanced asphalt binder rheological characterization and statistical analyses in order to formulate a methodical procedure to select an optimum AR material. A total of twenty asphalt binders covering over 5000 data points were utilized, including two virgin binders, and eighteen laboratory prepared AR binders at one CR dosage of 20% but with varying CR gradations. Temperature-frequency oscillation and multiple stress creep and recovery (MSCR) tests were conducted on all the twenty asphalts. G* shear modulus master curves developed from the oscillation test results indicated that AR binders with finer CR particles in the gradation produced flatter master curves that had high G* magnitudes, which are indicative of high strength, better rutting resistance, and reduced viscosity-temperature susceptibility than those with coarser gradation. MSCR test findings complemented the oscillation test results. Analyses of Variance and Dunnett’s statistical tests were performed on the binder rheological properties. From statistical analyses, it was concluded that the variation in CR gradations could significantly affect the binders’ properties and resistance to distresses. Based on the results of rheological experimentation and statistical analyses, a methodical selection procedure for AR binders was devised by developing Ashby plots for the binder rheological parameters. These Ashby plots are envisioned to assist the pavement engineers and contractors in choosing the best suitable AR binder with the essential properties required to satisfy the performance criteria.


Asphalt binder Crumb rubber Oscillation test MSCR ANOVA Dunnett’s test Ashby plots 



The authors gratefully acknowledge the Government of India Department of Science and Technology for their financial support vide Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB) Research Project Grant Number DST No: SERB/F/2670/2014-15 dated 17 July 2014.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. 1.
    Voskuilen JLM, Verhoef PNW (2003) Causes of premature ravelling failure in porous asphalt. In: Sixth international RILEM symposium on performance testing and evaluation of bituminous materials, pp 191–197Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Emery S (2005) “Asphalt on Australian airports”, Australian Asphalt Paving Association. In: Pavement Industry Conference, Surfers Paradise, Queensland, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Nahar S, Mohajeri M, Schmets A, Scarpas A, Van De Ven M, Schitter G (2013) First observation of blending-zone morphology at interface of reclaimed asphalt binder and virgin bitumen. Transp Res Rec J Transp Res Board 2370:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Glover CJ, Davison RR, Bullin JA, Estakhri CK, Williamson SA, Billiter TC, Chipps JF, Chun JS, Juristyarini P, Leicht SE, Wattanachai P (2000) A comprehensive laboratory and field study of high-cure crumb-rubber modified asphalt materials, No. FHWA/TX-01/1460-1Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Harvey J, Bejarano M, Popescu L (2001) Accelerated pavement testing of rutting and cracking performance of asphalt-rubber and conventional asphalt concrete overlay strategies. Road Mater Pavement Des 2(3):229–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Huang B, Mohammad LN, Graves PS, Abadie C (2002) Louisiana experience with crumb rubber modified hot-mix asphalt pavement. Transp Res Rec J Transp Res Board 1789(1):1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lo Presti D (2013) Recycled tyre rubber modified bitumens for road asphalt mixtures: a literature review. Constr Build Mater 49:863–881CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wang H, You Z, Mills-Beale J, Hao P (2012) Laboratory evaluation on high temperature viscosity and low temperature stiffness of asphalt binder with high percent scrap tire rubber. Constr Build Mater 26(1):583–590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kaloush KE (2014) Asphalt rubber: performance tests and pavement design issues. Constr Build Mater 67:258–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Venudharan V, Biligiri KP, Sousa JB, Way GB (2016) Asphalt-rubber gap-graded mixture design practices: a state-of-the-art research review and future perspective. Road Mater Pavement Des. doi: 10.1080/14680629.2016.1182060 Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    ASTM D6114-09 (2009) Standard specification for asphalt-rubber binder. American Society for Testing and Materials International, PA, USAGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Neto SAD, Farias MM, Pais JC, Pereira PA, Sousa JB (2006) Influence of crumb rubber and digestion time on the asphalt rubber binders. Road Mater Pavement Des 7(2):131–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Presti DL, Airey G (2013) Tyre rubber-modified bitumens development: the effect of varying processing conditions. Road Mater Pavement Des 14(4):888–900CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Subhy A, Lo Presti D, Airey G (2015) Rubberised bitumen manufacturing assisted by rheological measurements. Road Mater Pavement Des. doi: 10.1080/14680629.2015.1079549 Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Airey G, Rahman M, Collop AC (2004) Crumb rubber and bitumen interaction as a function of crude source and bitumen viscosity. Road Mater Pavement Des 5(4):453–475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Abdelrahman M, Carpenter S (1999) Mechanism of interaction of asphalt cement with crumb rubber modifier. Transp Res Rec J Transp Res Board 1661:106–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Jeong KD, Lee SJ, Amirkhanian SN, Kim KW (2010) Interaction effects of crumb rubber modified asphalt binders. Constr Build Mater 24(5):824–831CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Peralta J, Silva HM, Machado AV, Pais J, Pereira PA, Sousa JB (2010) Changes in rubber due to its interaction with bitumen when producing asphalt rubber. Road Mater Pavement Des 11(4):1009–1031CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Guillamot F, Goujard L, Simard D, Boulangé L (2013) Influence of interface energy on compatibility between ground tyre rubber and bitumen used in asphalt pavement. Road Mater Pavement Des 14(2):372–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Celauro B, Celauro C, Presti DL, Bevilacqua A (2012) Definition of a laboratory optimization protocol for road bitumen improved with recycled tire rubber. Constr Build Mater 37:562–572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kovaľaková M, Fričová O, Hronský V, Olčák D, Mandula J, Salaiová B (2013) Characterisation of crumb rubber modifier using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Road Mater Pavement Des 14(4):946–958CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Shen J, Amirkhanian S, Xiao F, Tang B (2009) Influence of surface area and size of crumb rubber on high temperature properties of crumb rubber modified binders. Constr Build Mater 23(1):304–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lee SJ, Akisetty CK, Amirkhanian SN (2008) The effect of crumb rubber modifier (CRM) on the performance properties of rubberized binders in HMA pavements. Constr Build Mater 22(7):1368–1376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Xiao F, Amirkhanian SN, Shen J, Putman B (2009) Influences of crumb rubber size and type on reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) mixtures. Constr Build Mater 23(2):1028–1034CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Venudharan V, Biligiri KP (2016) Rutting performance evaluation of crumb rubber-modified binders using advanced rheological test parameters. In: 8th international conference on maintenance and rehabilitation of pavements (MAIREPAV8), 27–29 July 2016, Research Publishing Services, SingaporeGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Way GB, Kaloush KE, Biligiri KP (2012) Asphalt-rubber standard practice guide. Rubber Pavements Association, TempeGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    ASTM D7175-05 (2005) Standard test method for determining the rheological properties of asphalt binder using a dynamic shear rheometer. American Society for Testing and Materials International, Pennsylvania 19428-2959, United StatesGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    SP-1 (1997) Performance graded asphalt binder specification and testing. Asphalt Institute, Superpave Series No. 1Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    ASTM D7405-10a (2011) Standard test method for multiple stress creep and recovery (MSCR) of asphalt binder using a dynamic shear rheometer. American Society for Testing and Materials International, Pennsylvania 19428-2959, United StatesGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Williams ML, Landel RF, Ferry JD (1955) The temperature dependence of relaxation mechanisms in amorphous polymers and other glass-forming liquids. J Am Chem Soc 77(14):3701–3707CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Everett BS, Shrondal A (2010) The cambridge dictionary of statistics, 4e. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ashby M (1999) Materials selection in mechanical design, 3rd edn. Butterworth-Heinemann, BurlingtonGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© RILEM 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology KharagpurKharagpurIndia

Personalised recommendations