# Experimental performance of reinforced double H-block masonry shear walls under cyclic loading

- 362 Downloads

## Abstract

Ordinary reinforced concrete block masonry shear walls have some shortcomings such as abrupt change in the grout core cross section and permeation of grout concrete resulting in reduced integrity and seismic performance of masonry structure. To overcome these issues, the authors used a special type of core-aligned block (termed as double H-block) to construct shear wall, and the seismic performance of double H-block reinforced masonry shear walls was investigated by lateral cyclic loading test. Two large-sized double H-block reinforced masonry shear walls were designed and fabricated. Two axial compression ratios and two grout ratios were considered. The failure pattern, shear strength, hysteretic energy, and ductility capacity of the walls were analyzed. The test results showed that the double H-block masonry shear wall constructed in running bond exhibited integrity, high ductility and energy dissipation capacity. The bearing capacity of H-block shear walls decreased with the reduction of axial compression ratio, while the ductility increased. A model was also proposed to predict the shear strength of the grouted double H-block based on mechanical analysis of the internally grouted concrete. The accuracy of the model was verified through 30 H-block specimens under shear tests and it was found the grout ratio had a significant effect on the shear strength of the grouted double H-block. The model proposed by the Chinese masonry code was over-conservative when the grout ratio was high. Finally, a modified shear capacity model was proposed and was found to be effective to predict the shear capacity of double H-block reinforced masonry shear wall.

## Keywords

Masonry shear wall Seismic behavior Cyclic test Failure mode## Abbreviations

- \(A_{\text{sh}}\)
Section area of the horizontal reinforcement rebar

- \(C_{1}\)
Factor considering the dowel action of the longitudinal reinforcement

- \(C_{2}\)
Factor considering the shear span ratio

- \(F_{i,\hbox{max} }^{ + } ,\,F_{i,\hbox{max} }^{ - }\)
The peak load in the push and pull direction loaded at the

*i*th multiple of the crack displacement, respectively- \(F_{\text{p}}\)
The lateral peak capacity of the shear walls

- \(K_{{_{{{\text{eff,}}i}} }}^{ + } ,\,K_{{_{{{\text{eff,}}i}} }}^{ - }\)
The lateral stiffness of the shear wall along the push and pull loading direction at the

*i*th multiple of the crack displacement, respectively- \(N\)
Compression load applied on the top of the shear wall

- \(V_{\text{c,new}} ,\,V_{\text{c,CN}} ,\,V_{\text{c,NZ}}\)
The calculated shear capacities of the shear wall, with the shear strength of the grouted concrete block masonry calculated using the new shear strength model proposed in this paper, the code suggested model of China and the code model of New Zealand, respectively

- \(V_{\exp }\)
Shear capacity of the shear wall obtained from the cyclic tests

- \(V_{\text{m}} ,\,V_{\text{N}} ,\,V_{\text{s}}\)
The contribution of grouted masonry, compression load, hozizontal reinforcement rebar to the shear capacity of shear wall, respectively

- \(X_{i}^{ + } ,\,X_{i}^{ - }\)
The displacement corresponding to \(F_{i,\hbox{max} }^{ + }\) and \(F_{i,\hbox{max} }^{ - }\), respectively

- \(b\)
Thickness of the shear wall

- \(f_{\text{b}}\)
Compressive strength of the brick

- \(f_{\text{c}}\)
Axial compressive strength of concrete prism

- \(f_{\text{cb}}\)
Mean compressive strength of concrete masonry unit

- \(f_{\text{cc}}\)
Compressive strength of concrete prism under biaxial stress state

- \(f_{\text{cg}}\)
Mean compressive strength of grout concrete

- \(f_{\text{cu}}\)
Cubic compressive strength of the grouted concrete

- \(f_{\text{g}}\)
Compressive strength of the grouted concrete block masonry

- \(f_{\text{m}}\)
Compressive strength of mortar

- \(f_{\text{mas}}\)
Compressive strength of the ungrouted concrete block masonry

- \(f_{\text{m,NZ}}\)
Mean masonry compressive strength based on the code of New Zealand

- \(f_{\text{t}}\)
Tensile strength of the concrete

- \(f_{\text{v}}\)
Shear strength of concrete

- \(f_{\text{vg}}\)
Shear strength of grouted concrete block masonry

- \(f_{\text{yh}}\)
Tensile strength of the horizontal reinforcement rebar

- \(h_{0}\)
Effective height of the transverse section of the shear wall

- \(s\)
Space between the adjacent horizontal reinforcement rebar along the vertical direction

- \(v_{\text{bm}}\)
Shear strength of grouted masonry

- \(\alpha\)
Ratio of the grout concrete section area to gross block section area

- \(\alpha_{\text{n}}\)
Ratio of net area to gross area of masonry unit

- \(\Delta_{\text{y}}\)
Yielding displacement of shear wall

- \(\Delta_{\text{u}}\)
Ultimate displacement of shear wall

- \(\delta_{\text{g}}\)
Block hole ratio, referring to the ratio of the hole section area to the gross block section area

- \(\theta\)
The angle formed between the wall axis and the strut from the point of axial load application to the center of the flexural compression zone

- \(\lambda\)
Shear span ratio of the shear wall

- \(\mu_{\Delta }\)
Ductility ratio, calculated by \({{\Delta_{\text{u}} } \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {{\Delta_{\text{u}} } {\Delta_{\text{y}} }}} \right. \kern-0pt} {\Delta_{\text{y}} }}\)

- \(\rho_{\text{g}}\)
Grout ratio, referring to the ratio of the grout concrete section area to the hole section area

- \(\sigma_{1} ,\,\sigma_{2}\)
Principal compressive stress of the concrete

## Notes

### Acknowledgments

This research was sponsored by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51378193 and 51408211), the Science and Technology Plan of Changsha, China (Grant Nos. CSCG-HNTF-GK20130576), the Natural Science Foundation of Hunan Province, China (Grant Nos. 2015JJ3032), the Open Fund of Hunan Province Engineering Laboratory of Bridge Structure (Changsha University of Science & Technology, Grant Nos. 14KD02), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities through the Project of Young Teacher Growth of Hunan University (Grant No. 531107040799).

## References

- 1.Kummer N (2007) Basics masonry construction. Birkhäuser Publishers: Basel. ISBN: 978-7643-7645-1Google Scholar
- 2.Shi CX (2012) Masonry structures. China Architecture & Building Press, Beijing
**(in Chinese)**Google Scholar - 3.Voon K, Ingham J (2006) Experimental in-plane shear strength investigation of reinforced concrete masonry walls with openings. J Struct Eng 132(3):400–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 4.da Porto F, Mosele F, Modena C (2010) Experimental testing of tall reinforced masonry walls under out-of-plane actions. Constr Build Mater 24(12):2559–2571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 5.da Porto F, Mosele F, Modena C (2011) In-plane cyclic behaviour of a new reinforced masonry system: experimental results. Eng Struct 33(9):2584–2596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 6.El-Dakhakhni W, Banting B, Miller S (2013) Seismic performance parameter quantification of shear-critical reinforced concrete masonry squat walls. J Struct Eng 139(6):957–973CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 7.Ahmadi F, Hernandez J, Sherman J, Kapoi C, Klingner R, McLean D (2014) Seismic performance of cantilever-reinforced concrete masonry shear walls. J Struct Eng 140(9):04014051CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 8.Mojiri S, El-Dakhakhni W, Tait M (2015) Seismic fragility evaluation of lightly reinforced concrete-block shear walls for probabilistic risk assessment. J Struct Eng 141(4):04014116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 9.Murcia-Delso J, Shing P (2012) Fragility analysis of reinforced masonry shear walls. Earthq Spectra 28(4):1523–1547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 10.Shedid M, Drysdale R, El-Dakhakhni W (2008) Behavior of fully grouted reinforced concrete masonry shear walls failing in flexure: experimental results. J Struct Eng 134(11):1754–1767CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 11.Heerema P, Shedid M, El-Dakhakhni W (2015) Seismic response analysis of a reinforced concrete block shear wall asymmetric building. J Struct Eng 141(7):04014178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 12.Ganesan TP, Ramamurthy K (1992) Behavior of concrete hollow-block masonry prisms under axial compression. J Struct Eng 118(7):1751–1769CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 13.Ramamurthy K, Sathish V, Ambalavanan R (2000) Compressive strength prediction of hollow concrete block masonry prisms. ACI Struct J 97(1):61–67Google Scholar
- 14.Khalaf FM, Hendry AW, Fairbairn DR (1994) Study of the compressive strength of block work masonry. ACI Struct J 91(4):367–375Google Scholar
- 15.Köksal HO, Karakoç C, Yildirim H (2015) Compression behavior and failure mechanisms of concrete masonry prisms. J Mater Civ Eng 17(1):107–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 16.Valluzzi MR, da Porto F, Modena C (2004) Behavior and modeling of strengthened three-leaf stone masonry walls. Mater Struct 37(2):184–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 17.Janaraj T, Dhanasekar M (2014) Finite element analysis of the in-plane shear behaviour of masonry panels confined with reinforced grouted cores. Constr Build Mater 65(29):495–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 18.del Coz Díaz JJ, García Nieto PJ, Álvarez Rabanal FP, Martínez-Luengas AL (2011) Design and shape optimization of a new type of hollow concrete masonry block using the finite element method. Eng Struct 33(1):1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 19.Huang L, Liao LJ, Yan LB, Yi HW (2014) Compressive strength of double H concrete block masonry prisms. J Mater Civ Eng 26(8):06014019CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 20.Huang L, Gao X, Chen L, Chen SY, Wang K, Wu H (2010) Research on the shear-resistance behaviors of N-type block masonry. J Hunan Univ 37(2):14–17
**(in Chinese)**Google Scholar - 21.Code of China (2001) “Code for seismic design of buildings”, GB 50011–2001. China Architecture & Building Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
- 22.Code of China (2001) “Code for design of masonry structures”, GB 50003–2001. China Architecture & Building Press, Beijing
**(in Chinese)**Google Scholar - 23.Park R (1998) Ductility evaluation from laboratory and analytical testing, In: Proceedings of the 9th World Conference on earthquake engineering, Tokyo-Kyoto, 8: 605–616Google Scholar
- 24.Wang CZ, Teng ZM (1985) Theory of reinforced concrete structure. China Architecture & Building Press, Beijing
**(in Chinese)**Google Scholar - 25.Guo ZH (2003) Theory and analysis of reinforced concrete. Tsinghua University Press, Beijing
**(In Chinese)**Google Scholar - 26.Kupfer H, Gerstle KH (1973) Behavior of concrete under biaxial stresses. J Eng Mech Div, ASCE 99:853–866Google Scholar
- 27.Chen L (2008) Experimental research on seismic behavior of reinforced N-block masonry shear wall, Master Dissertation 2008, Hunan University, Changsha, China (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- 28.Yang WJ, Shi CX (2001) Investigation of shear load-bearing capacity of reinforced concrete block masonry shear walls. Build Struct 31(9):25–27
**(in Chinese)**Google Scholar - 29.NZS 4230:2004 (2004) Design of reinforced concrete masonry structures, New Zealand: Standards New ZealandGoogle Scholar