Materials and Structures

, Volume 49, Issue 7, pp 2807–2818 | Cite as

An organic corrosion-inhibiting admixture for reinforced concrete: 18 years of field experience

  • U. M. Angst
  • M. Büchler
  • J. Schlumpf
  • B. Marazzani
Original Article


Long-term, well documented field experience with organic corrosion-inhibiting admixtures for reinforced concrete is scarce. The present paper contributes to closing this gap of knowledge by reporting 18 years of field performance of a proprietary inhibitor formulation based on alkanolamines (Sika FerroGard 901). Reinforced concrete elements were exposed to chloride-bearing splash water at a road in the Swiss Alps. Periodically, chloride profiles were determined and the specimens were monitored by galvanic current measurements, potential mapping, and electrical concrete resistance measurements. After 18 years, additional electrochemical measurements were undertaken on-site and selected zones of reinforcement steel were visually inspected. While in the reference concrete, corrosion initiated after approx. 8–9 years at a cover depth of 15 mm, the reinforcing steel in the concrete with inhibitor was after 18 years still essentially free from corrosion (at identical cover depth). Thus, under the conditions of the present work, the corrosion inhibitor increased the time to initiation of chloride-induced reinforcing steel corrosion by a factor of approx. 2.


Concrete Reinforcement Chloride Corrosion Corrosion inhibitor 



The support of Sika Services AG, Switzerland, is greatly acknowledged. We would also like to thank the “Tiefbauamt Kanton Graubünden” for providing the exposure site.


  1. 1.
    Faustino P, Bras A, Ripper T (2015) The effect of corrosion inhibitors on the modelling of design lifetime of RC structures. Mater Struct 48:1303–1319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    McCarthy MJ, Giannakou A, Jones MR (2004) Comparative performance of chloride attenuating and corrosion inhibiting systems for reinforced concrete. Mater Struct 37:671–679CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Page CL, Ngala VT, Page MM (2000) Corrosion inhibitors in concrete repair systems. Mag Concr Res 52:25–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Söylev TA, Richardson MG (2008) Corrosion inhibitors for steel in concrete: state-of-the-art report. Constr Build Mater 22:609–622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Benzina Mechmeche L, Dhouibi L, Ben Ouezdou M, Triki E, Zucchi F (2008) Investigation of the early effectiveness of an amino-alcohol based corrosion inhibitor using simulated pore solutions and mortar specimens. Cem Concr Compos 30:167–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Elsener B, Büchler M, Stalder F, Böhni H (1999) Migrating corrosion inhibitor blend for reinforced concrete: part 1—prevention of corrosion. Corrosion 55:1155–1163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Jamil HE, Montemor MF, Boulif R, Shriri A, Ferreira MGS (2003) An electrochemical and analytical approach to the inhibition mechanism of an amino-alcohol-based corrosion inhibitor for reinforced concrete. Electrochim Acta 48:3509–3518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jamil HE, Shriri A, Boulif R, Bastos C, Montemor MF, Ferreira MGS (2004) Electrochemical behaviour of amino alcohol-based inhibitors used to control corrosion of reinforcing steel. Electrochim Acta 49:2753–2760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ormellese M, Berra M, Bolzoni F, Pastore T (2006) Corrosion inhibitors for chlorides induced corrosion in reinforced concrete structures. Cem Concr Res 36:536–547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Vyrides I, Rakanta E, Zafeiropoulou T, Batis G (2013) Efficiency of amino alcohols as corrosion inhibitors in reinforced concrete. Open J Civ Eng 3:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wombacher F, Maeder U, Marazzani B (2004) Aminoalcohol based mixed corrosion inhibitors. Cem Concr Compos 26:209–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Brown MC, Weyers RE, Sprinkel MM (2001) Effects of corrosion-inhibiting admixtures on material properties of concrete. ACI Mater J 98:240–250Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dhouibi L, Triki E, Raharinaivo A (2002) The application of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to determine the long-term effectiveness of corrosion inhibitors for steel in concrete. Cem Concr Compos 24:35–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pereira EV, Figueira RB, Salta MM, Fonseca ITE (2010) Long-term efficiency of two organic corrosion inhibitors for reinforced concrete. Mater Sci Forum 636–637:1059–1064CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kessler RJ, Powers RG, Paredes MA, Sagüés AA, Virmani YP (2007) Corrosion inhibitors in concrete—results of a ten year study. In: NACE Corrosion Paper No. 07293Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cusson D, Qian S (2007) Corrosion inhibiting systems for concrete bridges—10 years of field performance evaluation. In: Fifth international conference on concrete under severe conditions environment and loading (CONSEC’07), Tours, France, pp 1–10Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Qian S, Cusson D (2004) Electrochemical evaluation of the performance of corrosion-inhibiting systems in concrete bridges. Cem Concr Compos 26:217–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Schreyer C (2013) Freight traffic and transport crossing the Swiss Alps 2012. Swiss Federal Office of Transport FOT, BerneGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    ASTM (2009) Standard C876: standard test method for corrosion potentials of uncoated reinforcing steel in concrete. American Society for Testing and MaterialsGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Elsener B, Andrade C, Gulikers J, Polder R, Raupach M (2003) Half-cell potential measurements—potential mapping on reinforced concrete structures (RILEM TC 154-EMC recommendation). Mater Struct 36:461–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Angst U, Vennesland Ø, Myrdal R (2009) Diffusion potentials as source of error in electrochemical measurements in concrete. Mater Struct 42:365–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Schiegg Y, Büchler M, Brem M (2009) Potenial mapping technique for the detection of corrosion in reinforced concrete structures. Mater Corros 8:79–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kessler S, Gehlen C (2013) Studie zur Potentialfeldmessung an 40 Jahre alten Stahlbetonbauteilen vom Olympiastadion München. Beton und Stahlbetonbau 108:620–629Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gulikers J, Elsener B (2009) Development of a calculation procedure for the statistical interpretation of the results of potential mapping performed on reinforced concrete structures. Mater Corros 60:87–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Swiss Society of Engineers and Architects (2013) SIA guideline 2006: planning, execution, and interpretation of potential measurements on reinforced concrete structures (in German). Swiss Society of Engineers and Architects (sia)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Angst UM, Polder R (2014) Spatial variability of chloride in concrete within homogeneously exposed areas. Cem Concr Res 56:40–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Angst U, Elsener B, Jamali A, Adey B (2012) Concrete cover cracking owing to reinforcement corrosion—theoretical considerations and practical experience. Mater Corros 63:1069–1077CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sagoe-Crentsil KK, Glasser FP (1993) “Green rust”, iron solubility and the role of chloride in the corrosion of steel at high pH. Cem Concr Res 23:785–791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Luo L, De Schutter G (2008) Influence of corrosion inhibitors on concrete transport properties. Mater Struct 41:1571–1579CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© RILEM 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Swiss Society for Corrosion Protection (SGK)ZurichSwitzerland
  2. 2.Sika Services AGZurichSwitzerland
  3. 3.Sika Technology AGZurichSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations