Materials and Structures

, Volume 49, Issue 1–2, pp 71–86 | Cite as

Bond behavior of steel reinforcement in high-performance fiber-reinforced cementitious composite flexural members

Original Article


High-performance fiber-reinforced cementitious composites (HPFRCCs) exhibit a pseudo strain hardening behavior in tension, and increased damage tolerance when loaded in compression. The unique properties of HPFRCC materials make them a viable material for increasing structural performance under severe loading conditions. In this paper, the bond performance of mild steel reinforcement embedded in HPFRCC beams is presented. Beam specimens with lap splices were tested in four-point bending to examine the bond strength and bond-slip behavior of steel reinforcement embedded in HPFRCC materials. Specimens made with three different HPFRCC mixtures, as well as a traditional normal weight concrete were tested in four point bending. The parameters investigated were the amount of concrete cover and the presence of steel confinement in the lap splice region. Experimental results show that HPFRCC normalized bond strengths increased by 37 %, on average, when compared to concrete. Furthermore, the bond-slip behavior of reinforcement in HPFRCCs had a higher toughness than observed for concrete specimens. Test results are compared with existing bond-slip models for fiber reinforced concrete from beam tests and HPFRCCs from pullout experiments, and a recommendation to modify the ascending branch of an existing bond-slip model applicable to ductile HPFRCCs is proposed.


High-performance fiber-reinforced cementitious composites HPFRCC Bond-slip Bond stress Reinforcement slip Splice Confinement 



The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the John A. Blume Earthquake Engineering Center at Stanford University. Funding for the first author was provided by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program. The authors wish to thank Albert Alix, Undergraduate Research Assistant, and Dr. Daniel Moreno-Luna, former Graduate Research Assistant, from Stanford University for their help with specimen fabrication and testing. The authors also appreciate the collaboration and efforts of graduate researchers Gabriel Jen and Will Trono, and Prof. Claudia Ostertag, University of California, Berkeley, for their help with casting the SC-HyFRC specimens.


  1. 1.
    Naaman AE, Reinhardt HW (2006) Proposed classification of hpfrc composites based on their tensile response. Mater Struct 39(5):547–555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Liao WC, Chao SH, Park SY, Naaman AE (2006) Self-consolidating high performance fiber reinforced concrete (SCHPFRC)—preliminary investigation. Technical report UMCEE 06–02, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USAGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Fischer G, Li VC (2002) Effect of matrix ductility on deformation behavior of steel-reinforced ECC flexural members under reversed cyclic loading conditions. ACI Struct J 99(6):781–790Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kesner KE, Billington SL, Douglas KS (2003) Cyclic response of highly ductile fiber-reinforced cement-based composites. ACI Mater J 100(5):381–390Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rouse M, Billington SL (2003) Behavior of bride piers with ductile fiber reinforced hinge regions and vertical. Unbonded post-tensioning. In: Fib symposium, concrete structures in seismic regions, GreeceGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Parra-Montesinos GJ, Peterfreund SW, Chao SH (2005) Highly damage-tolerant beam-column joints through use of high-performance fiber-reinforced cement composites. ACI Struct J 102(5):487–495Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Olsen EC, Billington SL (2011) Cyclic response of precast high-performance fiber-reinforced concrete infill panels. ACI Struct J 108(1):51–60Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Parra-Montesinos GJ (2005) High-performance fiber-reinforced cement composites: an alternative for seismic design of structures. ACI Struct J 102(5):668–675Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Li VC (2003) On engineered cementitious composites (ECC) a review of the material and its applications. J Adv Concr Technol 1(3):215–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Orangun CO, Jirsa JO, Breen JE (1977) A reevaluation of test data on development length and splices. J Am Concr Inst 74(3):114–122Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lowes LN, Moehle JP, Govindjee S (2004) Concrete-steel bond model for use in finite element modeling of reinforced concrete structures. ACI Struct J 101(4):501–511Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    ACI Comittee 408 (2003) Bond and development of straight reinforcing bars in tension. Technical report ACI 408R–03, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, Michigan, USAGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    fib Task Group 4.5 (2000) Bond of reinforcement in concrete. Technical report fib bulletin no. 10, The International Federation for Structural Concrete, Lausanne, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chinn J, Ferguson PM, Thompson JN (1955) Lapped splices in reinforced concrete beams. ACI J Proc 52(15):201–213Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hamza AM, Naaman AE (1996) Bond characteristics of deformed reinforcing steel bars embedded in SIFCON. ACI Mater J 93(6):1–11Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Harajli MH, Hamad BS, Karam K (2002) Bond-slip response of reinforcing bars embedded in plain and fiber concrete. J Mater Civil Eng 14(6):503–511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Harajli MH (2006) Effect of confinement using steel, FRC, or FRP on the bond stress-slip response of steel bars under cyclic loading. Mater Struct 39(6):621–634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chao SH, Naaman AE, Parra-Montesinos GJ (2009) Bond behavior of reinforcing bars in tensile strain-hardening fiber-reinforced cement composites. ACI Struct J 106(6):897–906Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chao SH, Naaman AE, Parra-Montesinos GJ (2010) Local bond stress-slip models for reinforcing bars and prestressing strands in high-performance fiber-reinforced cement composites. ACI SP-272, 151–172Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Panagiotou M, Trono W, Jen G, Kumar P, Ostertag CP (2014) Experimental seismic response of hybrid fiber-reinforced concrete bridge columns with novel longitudinal reinforcement detailing. ASCE J Bridge EngGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Moreno DM, Trono W, Jen G, Ostertag C, Billington SL (2014) Tension stiffening in reinforced high performance fiber reinforced cement-based composites. Cem Concr Compos 50(2014):36–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Li VC, Leung CKY (1992) Steady-state and multiple cracking of short random fiber composites. J Eng Mech 118(11):2246–2264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lepech MD, Li VC, Robertson RE, Keoleian GA (2008) Design of green engineered cementitious composites for improved sustainability. ACI Mater J 105(6):567–575Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kumar P, Jen G, Trono W, Panagiotou M, Ostertag CP (2011) Self compacting hybrid fiber reinforced concrete composites for bridge columns. Technical report PEER report 2011/106, Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California, Berkeley, California, USAGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    ASTM Standard C1609. Standard test method for flexural performance of fiber-reinforced concrete (using beam with third-point loading)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Moreno DM, Trono W, Jen G, Ostertag C, Billington SL (2011) Tension-stiffening in reinforced high performance fiber-reinforced cement-based composites under direct tension. In: high performance fiber reinforced cement composites, vol 6. Springer, pp 263–270Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Trono W, Jen G, Moreno D, Billington S, Ostertag C (2011) Confinement and tension stiffening effects in high performance self-consolidated hybrid fiber reinforced concrete composites. In: High performance fiber reinforced cement composites, vol 6. Springer, pp 255–262Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Harajli MH (2009) Bond stress slip model for steel bars in unconfined or steel, FRC, or FRP confined concrete. J Struct Eng 135(5):509–518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bandelt MJ, Billington SL (2014) Monotonic and cyclic bond-slip behavior of ductile high-performance fiber-reinforced cement-based composites. In: Proceedings of the third international RILEM conference on strain hardening cementitious composites (SHCC-3), Delft, NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bandelt MJ and Billington SL (2014) Simulating bond-slip effects in high-performance fiber-reinforced cement based composites under cyclic loads. In Proceedings of Computational Modelling of Concrete Structures (EURO-C 2014), vol 2. St. Anton am Arlberg, Austria, pp 1059–1066Google Scholar

Copyright information

© RILEM 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringStanford UniversityStanfordUSA

Personalised recommendations