Materials and Structures

, Volume 48, Issue 4, pp 871–906 | Cite as

Review: optical fiber sensors for civil engineering applications

  • Christopher K. Y. Leung
  • Kai Tai WanEmail author
  • Daniele Inaudi
  • Xiaoyi Bao
  • Wolfgang Habel
  • Zhi Zhou
  • Jinping Ou
  • Masoud Ghandehari
  • Hwai Chung Wu
  • Michio Imai
Original Article


Optical fiber sensor (OFS) technologies have developed rapidly over the last few decades, and various types of OFS have found practical applications in the field of civil engineering. In this paper, which is resulting from the work of the RILEM technical committee “Optical fiber sensors for civil engineering applications”, different kinds of sensing techniques, including change of light intensity, interferometry, fiber Bragg grating, adsorption measurement and distributed sensing, are briefly reviewed to introduce the basic sensing principles. Then, the applications of OFS in highway structures, building structures, geotechnical structures, pipelines as well as cables monitoring are described, with focus on sensor design, installation technique and sensor performance. It is believed that the State-of-the-Art review is helpful to engineers considering the use of OFS in their projects, and can facilitate the wider application of OFS technologies in construction industry.


Optical fiber sensors Monitoring Fiber Bragg grating Distributed sensor Interferometry Time domain reflectometry Frequency domain reflectometry 


  1. 1.
    Ansari F, Navalurkar R (1993) Kinematics of crack formation in cementitious composites by fiber optics. J Eng Mech 119(5):1048–1061CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bao X, Webb DJ, Jackson DA (1993) 22-km distributed temperature sensor using Brillouin gain in an optical fiber. Opt Lett 18(7):552–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bao X, Dhliwayo J, Heron N, Webb DJ, Jackson DA (1995) Experimental and theoretical studies on a distributed temperature sensor based on Brillouin scattering. J Lightwave Technol 13(7):1340–1348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bao X, Zhang C, Li W, Eisa M, El-Gamal S, Benmokrane B (2008) Monitoring the distributed impact wave on a concrete slab due to the traffic based on polarization dependence on stimulated Brillouin scattering. Smart Mater Struct 17(1):015003Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Brönnimann R, Nellen PM, Sennhauser U (2000) Reliability monitoring of CFRP structural elements in bridges with fiber optic Bragg grating sensors. Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures 10(4):322–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Casciati F, Domaneschi M, Inaudi D, Figini A, Glisic B, Gupta A (2004) Long-gauge fiber-optic sensors: a new approach to dynamic system identification. In: Proceedings of third European conference on structural control, pp 12–15Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cruz PJS, De León AD, Leung CKY (2009) Performance of a fibre-optic sensor for monitoring cracks of concrete, masonry and bituminous elements. Sensors Mater 21(2):65–85Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Culverhouse D, Farahi F, Pannell CN, Jackson DA (1989) Potential of stimulated Brillouin scattering as sensing mechanism for distributed temperature sensors. Electron Lett 25(14):913–915CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dakin JP, Pratt DJ, Bibby GW, Ross JN (1985) Distributed optical fibre Raman temperature sensor using a semiconductor light source and detector. Electron Lett 21(13):569–570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dantan N, Habel WR, Wolfbeis OS (2005) Fiber optic pH sensor for early detection of danger of corrosion in steel-reinforced concrete structures. In: Proceedings of SPIE—the international society for optical engineering, vol 5758, pp 274–284Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Deif A, Martín-Pérez B, Cousin B, Zhang C, Bao X, Li W (2010) Detection of cracks in a reinforced concrete beam using distributed Brillouin fibre sensors. Smart Mater Struct 19(5):045024Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ezekiel S (1992) Fiber optic gyros. In: Proceedings of SPIE 15th anniversary conferenceGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Froggatt M, Moore J (1998) High-spatial-resolution distributed strain measurement in optical fiber with Rayleigh scatter. Appl Opt 37(10):1735–1740CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Froggatt M, Soller B, Gifford D, Wolfe M (2004) Correlation and keying of Rayleigh scatter for loss and temperature sensing in parallel optical networks. In: OSA trends in optics and photonics series, vol 95B, OFC Technical Digest, Los Angeles, pp 691–693Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fuhr PL, Huston DR (1998) Corrosion detection in reinforced concrete roadways and bridges via embedded fiber optic sensors. Smart Mater Struct 7(2):217–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fuhr PL, Huston DR, MacCraith B (1998) Embedded fiber optic sensors for bridge deck chloride penetration measurement. Opt Eng 37(4):1221–1228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fuhr PL, Huston DR, Nelson M, Nelson O, Hu J, Mowat E, Spammer S, Tamm W (2000) Fiber optic sensing of a bridge in Waterbury, Vermont. J Intell Mater Syst Struct 10(4):293–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ghandehari M, Vimer CS (2004) In situ monitoring of pH level with fiber optic evanescent field spectroscopy. NDT & E Int 37(8):611–616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ghandehari M, Kostarelos K, Cheng K, Vimer C, Yoon S (2008) Near-infrared spectroscopy for in situ monitoring of geoenvironment. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng 134(4):487–496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Glisic B, Inaudi D (2002) Long-gage fiber optic sensors for global structural monitoring. In: First international workshop on structural health monitoring of innovative civil engineering structures. ISIS, pp 285–295Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Glisic B, Inaudi D, Nan C (2002) Piles monitoring during the axial compression, pullout and flexure test using fiber optic sensors. In: Proceedings of the 81st annual meeting of the transportation research board (TRB)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Glisic B, Inaudi D, Hoong KC, Lau JM (2003) Monitoring of building columns during construction. In: Proceedings of the 5th Asia Pacific structural engineering & construction conference (APSEC), pp 593–606Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Glisic B, Inaudi D, Posenato D, Figini A, Casanova N (2007) Monitoring of heritage structures and historial monuments using long-gage fiber optic interferometric sensors—an overview. In: Proceedings of the 3rd international conference on structural health monitoring of intelligent infrastructureGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Glisic B, Posenato D, Persson F, Myrvoll F, Enckell M, Inaudi D (2007) Integrity monitoring of old steel bridge using fiber optic distributed sensors based on Brillouin scattering. In: Proceedings of the 3rd international conference on structural health monitoring of intelligent infrastructure—SHMII-3Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gloetzl R, Hofmann D, Basedau F, Habel W (2005) Geotechnical pressure cell using a long-term reliable high-precision fibre optic sensor head. In: Proceedings of SPIE—the international society for optical engineering, vol 5758, pp 248–253Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gloetzl R, Krywult J, Schneider Gloetzl J, Dynowska (2006) Long-term stability of a new EFPI stress monitoring sonde installed in a brown coal mine in Poland. In: Proceedings of SPIE—the International Society for Optical Engineering, vol 6167Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gogolla T, Krebber K (1997) Fibre sensors for distributed temperature and strain measurements using Brillouin scattering and frequency-domain methods. In: Proceedings of SPIE—the International Society for Optical Engineering, vol 3105, pp 168–179Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Grosso AD, Bergmeister K, Inaudi D, Santa U (2001) Monitoring of bridges and concrete structures with fibre optic sensors in Europe. In: Proceedings of international association for bridge and structural engineering conferenceGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Gu X, Chen Z, Ansari F (2000) Embedded fiber optic crack sensor for reinforced concrete structures. ACI Struct J 97(3):468–476Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gu X, Chen Z, Ansari F (2000) Method and theory for a multi-gauge distributed fiber optic crack sensor. J Intell Mater Syst Struct 10(4):266–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Habel W, Hillemeier B (1995) Results in monitoring and assessment of damages in large steel and concrete structures by means of fiber optic sensors. In: Proceedings of SPIE—The International Society for Optical Engineering, vol 2446, pp 25–36Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Habel W, Hofmann D (1994) Strain measurements in reinforced concrete walls during the hydration reaction by means of embedded fiber interformeters. In: Proceedings of 2nd European conference on smart structures and materials, SPIE, vol 2361, pp 176–179Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Habel WR, Krebber K (2011) Fiber-optic sensor applications in civil and geotechnical engineering. Photonic Sensors 1(3):268–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Habel WR, Krebber K (2012) Application of fiber-optic sensors for health monitoring purposes in geo-engineering. In: Proceedings of the 4th international forum on opto-electronic sensor-based monitoring in geo-engineeringGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Habel W, Krebber K, Dantan N, Schallert M, Hofmann D (2007) Recent example of applied fiber optic sensors in geotechnical area to evaluate and monitor structural integrity. In: Proceedings of workshop on opto-electronic sensor-based monitoring in geo-engineeringGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hale K (1992) An optical-fiber fatigue crack detection and monitoring system. In: Proceedings of the 1st European conference on smart structures and materials, pp 147–150Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hartog AH (1983) Distributed temperature sensor based on liquid-core optical fibers. J Lightwave Technol LT-1(3):498–509Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    He J, Zhou Z, Ou J (2013) Optic fiber sensor-based smart bridge cable with functionality of self-sensing. Mech Syst Signal Process 35(1–2):84–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Helmerich R (2009) Construction process monitoring at the New Berlin Main Station. Wiley, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hill KO, Meltz G (1997) Fiber Bragg grating technology fundamentals and overview. J Lightwave Technol 15(8):1263–1276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hill KO, Malo B, Bilodeau F, Johnson DC, Albert J (1993) Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask. Appl Phys Lett 62(10):1035–1037CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Horiguchi T, Kurashima T, Tateda M (1989) Tensile strain dependence of Brillouin frequency shift in silica optical fibers. IEEE Photonics Technol Lett 1(5):107–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Horiguchi T, Kurashima T, Tateda M, Ishihara K, Wakui Y (1992) Brillouin characterization of fiber strain in bent slot-type optical-fiber cables. J Lightwave Technol 10(9):1196–1201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Huang M, Zhou Z, Huang Y, Ou J (2013) A distributed self-sensing FRP anchor rod with built-in optical fiber sensor. Meas Phys Educ Exerc Sci 46(4):1363–1370Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Huston D, Fuhr P, Kajenski P, Snyder D (1992) Concrete beam testing with optical fiber sensors. In: nondestructive testing of concrete elements and structures, pp. 60–69Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Imai M, Miura S, Hotate K (2005) Health monitoring of a full-scale tunnel model using BOCDA-based fiber optic distributed sensor. In: Proceedings of 2nd international conference on structural health monitoring and intelligent infrastructure, pp 241–246Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Imai M, Nakano R, Kono T, Ichinomiya T, Miura S, Masahito M (2010) Crack detection application for fiber reinforced concrete using BOCDA-based optical fiber strain sensor. Struct Eng 136(8):1001–1008Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Inaudi D (1995) Coherence multiplexing of in-line displacement and temperature sensors. Opt Eng 34(7):1912–1915CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Inaudi D (2009) Overview of 40 bridge structural health monitoring projects. In: Proceedings of international bridge conferenceGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Inaudi D, Church J (2011) Paradigm shifts in monitoring levees and earthen dams distributed fiber optic monitoring systems. In: Proceedings of the 31st USSD annual meeting & conferenceGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Inaudi D, Glisic B (2005) Application of distributed fiber optic sensory for SHM. In: Proceedings of 2nd international conference on structural health monitoring of intelligent infrastructureGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Inaudi D, Glisic B (2006) Distributed fiber optic strain and temperature sensing for structural health monitoring. In: Proceedings of the 3rd international conference on bridge maintenance, safety and management—bridge maintenance, safety, management, life-cycle performance and costGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Inaudi D, Glisic B (2007) Distributed fibre optic sensing for long-range pipeline monitoring. In: Proceedings of the 3rd international conference on structural health monitoring of intelligent infrastructure—SHMII-3Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Inaudi D, Elamari A, Pflug L, Gisin N, Breguet J, Vurpillot S (1994) Low-coherence deformation sensors for the monitoring of civil-engineering structures. Sensors Actuators 44(2):125–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Inaudi D, Vurpillot S, Casanova N (1996) Bridge monitoring by interferometric deformation sensors. In: Proceedings of SPIE—The International Society for Optical Engineering, vol 2895, pp 34–45Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Inaudi D, Casanova N, Vurpillot S, Kronenberg P, Martinola G, Steinmann G, Mathier J (1999) SOFO: structural monitoring with fiber optic sensors. In: Proceedings of monitoring and safety evaluation of existing concrete structuresGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Inaudi D, Belli R, Walder R (2008) Detection and localization of micro-leakages using distributed fiber optic sensing. In: Proceedings of the 7th international pipeline conference, IPC2008Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kajenski PJ, Fuhr PL, Huston DR (1992) Mode coupling and phase modulation in vibrating waveguides. J Lightwave Technol 10(9):1297–1301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kim Y, Sung H, Kim H, Kim J (2011) Monitoring of tension force and load transfer of ground anchor by using optical FBG sensors embedded tendon. Smart Struct Syst 7(4):303–317Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kingsley SA, Davies DEN (1985) OFDR diagnostics for fibre and integrated-optic systems. Electron Lett 21(10):434–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Krebber K, Liehr S, Lenke P, Wendt M (2009) Distributed POF sensor for structural health monitoring—first practical applications and field tests results. In: Proceedings of 18th international conference on plastic optical fibresGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Lan C, Zhou Z, Ou J (2012) Full-scale prestress loss monitoring of damaged RC structures using distributed optical fiber sensing technology. Sensors (Switzerland) 12(5):5380–5394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Leung CKY, Olson N, Wan KT, Meng A (2005) Theoretical modeling of signal loss versus crack opening for a novel crack sensor. J Eng Mech 131(8):777–790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Li D, Zhou Z, Ou J (2011) Development and sensing properties study of FRP-FBG smart stay cable for bridge health monitoring applications. Meas Phys Educ Exerc Sci 44(4):722–729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Li DS, Ou JP, Zhou Z (2008) Intelligent monitoring of Erbian Dadu River Arch Bridge using fiber Bragg grating sensors. In: Earth and space conference 2008: proceedings of the 11th aerospace division international conference on engineering, science, construction, and operations in challenging environments, vol 323Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Li H, Ou J, Zhao X, Zhou W, Li H, Zhou Z, Yang Y (2006) Structural health monitoring system for the Shandong Binzhou Yellow River Highway Bridge. Computer-Aided Civ Infrastruct Eng 21(4):306–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Liehr S, Lenke P, Krebber K, Seeger M, Thiele E, Metschies H, Gebreselassie B, Münich JC, Stempniewski L (2008) Distributed strain measurement with polymer optical fibers integrated into multifunctional geotextiles. In: Proceedings of SPIE—The International Society for Optical Engineering, vol 7003Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Liehr S, Lenke P, Wendt M, Krebber K, Seeger M, Thiele E, Metschies H, Gebreselassie B, Munich JC (2009) Polymer optical fiber sensors for distributed strain measurement and application in structural health monitoring. IEEE Sens J 9(11):1330–1338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Lu YG, Zhang XP, Dong YM, Wang F, Liu YH (2007) Optical cable fault locating using Brillouin optical time domain reflectometer and cable localized heating method. J Phys 48(1):1387Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Mao JH, Jin WL, He Y, Cleland DJ, Bai Y (2011) A novel method of embedding distributed optical fiber sensors for structural health monitoring. Smart Mater Struct 20(12):125018Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Masri SF, Agbabian MS, Abdel-Ghaffar AM, Higazy M, Claus RO, de Vries MJ (1994) Experimental study of embedded fiber-optic strain gauges in concrete structures. J Eng Mech 120(8):1696–1717CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Matthys S, Taerwe L (2003) Testing of post-tensioned concrete girders in the framework of monitoring with fibre optic sensors. In: Structural health monitoring and intelligent infrastructure—proceedings of the 1st international conference on structural health monitoring and intelligent infrastructure, vol 1, pp 321–328Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Meltz G, Morey W, Glenn W (1999) Formation of Bragg gratings in optical fibers by a transverse holographic method. Opt Lett 14:823–825CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Mokhtar MR, Owens K, Kwasny J, Taylor SE, Basheer PAM, Cleland D, Bai Y, Sonebi M, Davis G, Gupta A, Hogg I, Bell B, Doherty W, McKeague S, Moore D, Greeves K, Sun T, Grattan KTV (2012) Fiber-optic strain sensor system with temperature compensation for arch bridge condition monitoring. IEEE Senssors J 12(5):1470–1476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Ni YQ, Xia Y, Liao WY, Ko JM (2009) Technology innovation in developing the structural health monitoring system for Guangzhou new TV tower. Struct Control Health Monit 16(1):73–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Nöther N, Wosniok A, Krebber K, Thiele E (2008) A distributed fiber optic sensor system for dike monitoring using Brillouin optical frequency domain analysis. In: Proceedings of SPIE—The International Society for Optical Engineering, vol 6933Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Ou J, Zhou Z (2008) Applications of optical fiber sensors of SHM in infrastructures. In: Proceedings of SPIE—The International Society for Optical Engineering, vol 6933Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Pei H, Yin J, Zhu H, Hong C, Jin W, Xu D (2012) Monitoring of lateral displacements of a slope using a series of special fibre Bragg grating-based in-place inclinometers. Meas Sci Technol 23(2):025007Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Poumellec B, Guénot P, Riant I, Sansonetti P, Niay P, Bernage P, Bayon JF (1995) UV induced densification during Bragg grating inscription in Ge:SiO2 preforms. Opt Mater 4(4):441–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Rao Y (1997) In-fibre Bragg grating sensors. Meas Sci Technol 8(4):355–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Ravet F, Zou L, Bao X, Chen L, Huang RF, Khoo HA (2006) Detection of buckling in steel pipeline and column by the distributed Brillouin sensor. Opt Fiber Technol 12(4):305–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Ravet F, Zou L, Bao X, Ozbakkaloglu T, Saatcioglu M, Zhou J (2007) Distributed Brillouin sensor for structural health monitoring. Can J Civ Eng 34(3):291–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Rossi P, Le Maou F (1989) New method for detecting cracks in concrete using fibre optics. Mater Struct 22(6):437–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Schallert M, Hofmann D, Habel W, Stahlmann J (2007) Structure-integrated fiber-optic sensors for reliable static and dynamic analysis of concrete foundation piles. In: Proceedings of SPIE—The International Society for Optical Engineering, vol 6530Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Schilder C, Kohlhoff H, Hofmann D, Habel W (2012) Structure-integrated fibre-optic strain wave sensor for pile testing and monitoring of reinforced concrete piles. In: Proceedings of the 6th European workshop on structural health monitoringGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
  87. 87.
    Sensornet: Case studies: Seepage monitoring in embankment dams. Accessed 08 Nov 2013
  88. 88.
    Sensornet: Case studies: Tunnel heat detection—China. Accessed 08 Nov 2013
  89. 89.
    Shiota AT, Wada F (1991) Distributed temperature sensors for single-mode fibers. In: Proceedings of SPIE—The International Society for Optical Engineering, vol 1586, pp 13–18Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Soller BJ, Gifford DK, Wolfe MS, Froggatt ME (2005) High resolution optical frequency domain reflectometry for characterization of components and assemblies. Opt Express 13(2):666–674CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Song KY, Hotate K (2007) Distributed fiber strain sensor with 1-kHz sampling rate based on Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis. IEEE Photonics Technol Lett 19(23):1928–1930CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Tateda M, Horiguchi T, Kurashima T, Ishihara K (1990) First measurement of strain distribution along field-installed optical fibers using Brillouin spectroscopy. J Lightwave Technol 8(9):1269–1272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Teng J, Zhu YH, Lu W, Xiao YQ (2010) The intelligent method and implementation of health monitoring system for large span structures. In: Proceedings of the 12th international conference on engineering, science, construction, and operations in challenging environments—earth and space 2010, pp 2543–2552Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Th evenaz L, Nikl es M, Fellay A, Facchini M, Robert P (1998) Applications of distributed Brillouin fibre sensing. In: Proceedings of SPIE—The International Society for Optical Engineering, vol 3407, pp 374–381Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Vimer C, Yu S, Ghandehari M (2009) Probing pH levels in civil engineering materials. J Mater Civ Eng ASCE 21(2):51–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Wan KT, Leung CKY (2007) Applications of a distributed fiber optic crack sensor for concrete structures. Sensors and Actuators A 135(2):458–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Wan KT, Leung CKY (2007) Fiber optic sensor for the monitoring of mixed mode cracks in structures. Sens Actuators A 135(2):370–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Wan KT, Leung CKY (2012) Durability tests of a fiber optic corrosion sensor. Sens Actuators A 12(3):3656–3668Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Wan KT, Leung CKY, Chen L (2008) A novel optical fiber sensor for steel corrosion in concrete structures. Sens Actuators A 8(3):1960–1976Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Wang C, Zhou Z, Hu Q, Ou J (2005) Construction control of mass concrete of Nanjing 3rd Yangtze Bridge using FRP-packaged FBG sensors. In: Proceedings of SPIE—The International Society for Optical Engineering, vol 5855, part II, pp 1012–1015Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Wolff R, Miesseler H (1992) Monitoring of prestressed concrete structures with optical fiber sensors. In: Proceedings of the first European conference on smart structures and materials, pp 23–29Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Yu Q, Zhou X (2011) Pressure sensor based on the fiber-optic extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer. Photonic Sensors 1(1):72–83CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Zhou Z, He J, Yan K, Ou J (2008) Fiber-reinforced polymer-packaged optical fiber sensors based on Brillouin optical time-domain analysis. Opt Eng 47(1):014401Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Zhou Z, He J, Chen G, Ou J (2009) A smart steel strand for the evaluation of prestress loss distribution in post-tensioned concrete structures. J Intell Mater Syst Struct 20(16):1901–1912CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Zhou Z, He J, Huang M, He J, Ou J, Chen G (2010) Casing pipe damage detection with optical fiber sensors: a case study in oil well constructions. In: Proceedings of SPIE—The International Society for Optical Engineering, vol 7649Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Zhou Z, Liu W, Huang Y, Wang H, Jianping H, Huang M, Jinping O (2012) Optical fiber Bragg grating sensor assembly for 3D strain monitoring and its case study in highway pavement. Mech Syst Signal Process 28:36–49Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Zhu H, Ho ANL, Yin J, Sun HW, Pei H, Hong C (2012) An optical fibre monitoring system for evaluating the performance of a soil nailed slope. Smart Struct Syst 9(5):393–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Zou L, Ferrier GA, Afshar S, Yu Q, Chen L, Bao X (2004) Distributed Brillouin scattering sensor for discrimination of wall-thinning defects in steel pipe under internal pressure. Appl Opt 43(7):1583–1588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Zou L, Bao X, Wan Y, Chen L (2005) Coherent probe-pump-based Brillouin sensor for centimeter-crack detection. Opt Lett 30(4):370–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Zou L, Bao X, Ravet F, Chen L (2006) Distributed Brillouin fiber sensor for detecting pipeline buckling in an energy pipe under internal pressure. Appl Opt 45(14):3372–3377CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© RILEM 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christopher K. Y. Leung
    • 1
  • Kai Tai Wan
    • 2
    Email author
  • Daniele Inaudi
    • 3
  • Xiaoyi Bao
    • 4
  • Wolfgang Habel
    • 5
  • Zhi Zhou
    • 6
  • Jinping Ou
    • 7
  • Masoud Ghandehari
    • 8
  • Hwai Chung Wu
    • 9
  • Michio Imai
    • 10
  1. 1.Hong Kong University of Science and TechnologyClear Water BayHong Kong
  2. 2.Nano and Advanced Materials Institute LimitedShatinHong Kong
  3. 3.SmartecMannoSwitzerland
  4. 4.University of OttwaOttwaCanada
  5. 5.BAMBerlinGermany
  6. 6.Harbin Institute of TechnologyHarbinChina
  7. 7.Dalian University of TechnologyDalianChina
  8. 8.Polytechnic Institute of New York UniversityBrooklynUSA
  9. 9.Wayne State UniversityDetroitUSA
  10. 10.Kajima Technical Research InstituteTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations