Materials and Structures

, Volume 46, Issue 11, pp 1843–1860 | Cite as

Effectiveness of advanced composites in repairing heat-damaged RC columns

  • Hanan Al-Nimry
  • Rami Haddad
  • Saad Afram
  • Mohammed Abdel-Halim
Original Article


Thirteen rectangular RC column specimens, constructed at 1/3 scale, were tested under axial loading to investigate the use of advanced composites in repairing heat-induced damage. Eleven of the column specimens were subjected to elevated temperatures of 500 °C for 3 h. Nine heat-damaged columns were repaired using carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheets and plates. The effects of wrapping configuration, thickness of wrapping sheets, inclusion of plates as externally-bonded longitudinal reinforcement and the area of plates were examined using seven repair schemes. Test results confirmed that elevated temperatures adversely affect the axial load resistance and axial stiffness of the columns while increasing their toughness. Buckling under pure compressive loads was evident in heat-damaged columns except in those repaired using longitudinal CFRP plates. Partial wrapping with unidirectional CFRP sheets was found ineffective in augmenting the axial load capacity and stiffness of the damaged columns whereas full wrapping increased their axial load resistance and toughness. Using externally-bonded longitudinal CFRP plates, confined with circumferential wraps, significantly enhanced the initial axial stiffness and axial load resistance of the damaged columns. However, none of the seven repair schemes investigated in this study managed to regain the original axial stiffness and load resistance of the undamaged columns.


RC columns Heat-damaged columns Repair Advanced composites Carbon fiber reinforced polymer Axial loading 



The work presented in this article was funded by the Deanship of Research at Jordan University of Science and Technology.


  1. 1.
    Ozcan O, Binici B, Ozcebe G (2008) Improving seismic performance of deficient reinforced concrete columns using carbon fiber-reinforced polymers. Eng Struct 30(6):1632–1646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Neville AM (1995) Properties of concrete, 4th edn. Pearson Education Limited, LondonGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Arioz O (2007) Effects of elevated temperatures on properties of concrete. Fire Saf J 42(8):516–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Netinger I, Kesegic I, Guljas I (2011) The effect of high temperatures on the mechanical properties of concrete made with different types of aggregates. Fire Saf J 46(7):425–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Khoury GA, Majorana CE, Pesavento F, Schrefler BA (2002) Modelling of heated concrete. Mag Concr Res 54(2):77–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hertz KD (2005) Concrete strength for fire safety design. Mag Concr Res 57(8):445–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Janotka I, Nurnbergerova T (2005) Effect of temperature on structural quality of the cement paste and high-strength concrete with silica fume. Nucl Eng Des 235(17–19):2019–2032CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Georgali B, Tsakiridis PE (2005) Microstructure of fire-damaged concrete. A case study. Cem Concr Compos 27(2):255–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Luccioni BM, Figueroa MI, Danesi RF (2003) Thermo-mechanic model for concrete exposed to elevated temperatures. Eng Struct 25(6):729–742CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bazant ZP, Kaplan MF (1996) Concrete at high temperatures: material properties and mathematical models. Longman, EnglandGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bilow DN, Kamara ME (2008) Fire and concrete structures. Proceedings of the 2008 Structures Congress: crossing borders, ASCE, pp 1–10. doi:
  12. 12.
    Neves IC, Rodrigues JPC, Loureiro AP (1996) Mechanical properties of reinforcing and prestressing steels after heating. J Mater Civ Eng 8(4):189–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chiang CH, Tsai CL (2003) Time-temperature analysis of bond strength of a rebar after fire exposure. Cem Concr Res 33(10):1651–1654CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fletcher IA, Welch S, Torero JL, Carvel RO, Usmani A (2007) Behavior of concrete structures in fire. Therm Sci 11(2):37–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lin CH, Chen ST, Yang CA (1995) Repair of fire-damaged reinforced concrete columns. ACI Struct J 92(4):406–411MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lange G (1980) Structural repair of fire damaged concrete. Concr Int 2(9):27–29Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Campione G (2012) Load carrying capacity of RC compressed columns strengthened with steel angles and strips. Eng Struct 40:457–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ramirez JL, Barcena JM, Urreta JI, Sanchez JA (1997) Efficiency of short steel jackets for strengthening square section concrete columns. Constr Build Mater 11(5–6):345–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Xiong GJ, Wu XY, Li FF, Yan Z (2011) Load carrying capacity and ductility of circular columns confined by ferrocement including steel bars. Constr Build Mater 25(5):2263–2268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Li G, Hedlund S, Pang SS, Alaywan W, Eggers J, Abadie C (2003) Repair of damaged RC columns using fast curing FRP composites. Compos B 34(3):261–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Li G, Kidane S, Pang SS, Helms JE, Stubblefield MA (2003) Investigation into FRP repaired RC columns. Compos Struct 62(1):83–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Li G, Maricherla D, Singh K, Pang SS, John M (2006) Effect of fiber orientation on the structural behavior of FRP wrapped concrete cylinders. Compos Struct 74(4):475–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kaminski M, Trapko T (2006) Experimental behavior of reinforced concrete column models strengthened by CFRP materials. J Civil Eng Manag 12(2):109–115Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hadi MNS (2006) Comparative study of eccentrically loaded FRP wrapped columns. Compos Struct 74(2):127–135MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hadi MNS (2007) Behavior of FRP strengthened concrete columns under eccentric compression loading. Compos Struct 77(1):92–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Harajli MH (2006) Axial stress-strain relationship for FRP confined circular and rectangular concrete columns. Cem Concr Compos 28(10):938–948CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Harajli MH (2005) Behavior of gravity load-designed rectangular concrete columns confined with fiber reinforced polymer sheets. ASCE J Compos Constr 9(1):4–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Belarbi A, Bae SW (2007) An experimental study on the effect of the environmental exposures and corrosion on RC columns with FRP composite jackets. Compos B 38(5–6):674–684CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Green MF, Bisby LA, Fam AZ, Kodur VKR (2006) FRP confined concrete columns: behavior under extreme conditions. Cem Concr Compos 28(10):928–937CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Yaqub M, Bailey CG (2011) Repair of fire damaged circular reinforced concrete columns with FRP composites. Constr Build Mater 25(1):359–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Yaqub M, Bailey CG, Nedwell P (2011) Axial capacity of post-heated square columns wrapped with FRP composites. Cem Concr Compos 33(6):694–701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Yaqub M, Bailey CG (2011) Cross sectional shape effects on the performance of post-heated reinforced concrete columns wrapped with FRP composites. Compos Struct 93(3):1103–1117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bisby LA, Chen JF, Li SQ, Stratford TJ, Cueva N, Crossling K (2011) Strengthening fire-damaged concrete by confinement with fibre-reinforced polymer wraps. Eng Struct 33(12):3381–3391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Yaqub M, Bailey CG, Nedwell P, Khan QUZ, Javed I (2013) Strength and stiffness of post-heated columns repaired with ferrocement and fibre reinforced polymer jackets. Compos B 44(1):200–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Yaqub M, Bailey CG (2012) Seismic performance of shear critical post-heated reinforced concrete square columns wrapped with FRP composites. Constr Build Mater 34:457–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    ACI 440.2R (2008) Guide for the design and construction of externally bonded FRP systems for strengthening concrete structures, American Concrete Institute, Farmington HillsGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Dias WPS, Khoury GA, Sullivan PJE (1990) Mechanical properties of hardened cement paste exposed to temperatures up to 700 C (1292 F). ACI Mater J 87(2):160–166Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Khoury GA (1992) Compressive strength of concrete at high temperatures: a reassessment. Mag Concr Res 44(161):291–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Sarshar R, Khoury GA (1993) Material and environmental factors influencing the compressive strength of unsealed cement paste and concrete at high temperatures. Mag Concr Res 45(162):51–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Culfik MS, Ozturan T (2002) Effect of elevated temperatures on the residual mechanical properties of high-performance mortar. Cem Concr Res 32:809–816CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Nassif AY, Rigden SR, Burley E (1995) A new quantitative method for assessing fire-damaged concrete structures. Mag Concr Res 47(172):271–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Haddad RH, Al-Mekhlafi N, Ashteyat AM (2011) Repair of heat-damaged reinforced concrete slabs using fibrous composite materials. Constr Build Mater 25(3):1213–1221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Haddad RH, Shannag MJ, Moh’d A (2008) Repair of heat-damaged RC shallow beams using advanced composites. Mater Struct 41(2):287–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Chen YH, Chang YF, Yao GC, Sheu MS (2009) Experimental research on post-fire behavior of reinforced concrete columns. Fire Saf J 44(5):741–748CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Jau WC, Huang KL (2008) A Study of reinforced concrete corner columns after fire. Cem Concr Compos 30(7):622–638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Wang LM, Wu YF (2008) Effect of corner radius on the performance of CFRP-confined square concrete columns: test. Eng Struct 30(2):493–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Zhang B, Bicanic N, Pearce CJ, Balabanic G (2000) Assessment of toughness of concrete subject to elevated temperatures from complete load-displacement curve—part II: experimental investigations. ACI Mater J 97(5):556–566Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    ACI 318 M-08 (2008) Building code requirements for structural concrete (ACI 318 M-08) and commentary. American Concrete Institute, Farmington HillsGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Tolentino E, Lameiras FS, Gomes AM, Rigo da Silva CA, Vasconcelos WL (2002) Effects of high temperature on the residual performance of Portland cement concretes. Mater Res 5(3):301–307Google Scholar

Copyright information

© RILEM 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hanan Al-Nimry
    • 1
  • Rami Haddad
    • 1
  • Saad Afram
    • 1
  • Mohammed Abdel-Halim
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringJordan University of Science and TechnologyIrbidJordan

Personalised recommendations