Materials and Structures

, Volume 43, Issue 3, pp 381–391 | Cite as

Influence of cement kiln dust on the physical properties of calcium lime mortars

  • S. PavíaEmail author
  • D. Regan
Original Article


This work investigates the influence of cement kiln dust (CKD) on the properties of mortars made with a non-hydraulic binder of high available-lime content (calcium lime—CL), in order to further recycle industrial waste. Physical properties of CKD-CL90 mortars with increasing CKD content were compared to those of feebly-hydraulic lime (NHL2) and CL90 mortars. This paper concludes that, despite the CKD in this study being partially inert, the abundant reactive, free lime provided by the CL90 binder has enabled formation of hydration products. The strength development, rising proportionally to the amount of CKD when addition is over 5%, and the reduction in porosity/suction of the CKD/CL90 mixes, support the occurrence of hydraulic set. The high alkalinity of the CKD/CL90 system; the high specific surface of the CKD particles and the presence of amorphous reactive silica further support the presence of hydraulic set. Results evidenced that CKD addition significantly increased the mortar’s water demand simultaneously enhancing compressive strength and bulk density, and decreasing porosity and capillary suction. These effects can be ascribed to both the gain of packing density induced by the CKD particles, and the formation of hydration phases within pores and the space originally filled with water. Finally, this work concludes that the physical properties of CKD/CL mortars including at least 20%CKD are comparable to those of feebly hydraulic lime mixes, however, fracturing by shrinkage (due to high water demand) and damage related to sulphur, chlorine and alkali content need to be investigated before CKD/CL mixes are advised for application.


CKD CL90 NHL2 Hydraulic set Water demand Compressive strength Suction Porosity 



The authors thank Dr Robbie Goodhue, Dept. of Geology, TCD, for his assistance with the XRD analysis and Mr. Neal Leddy, Centre for Microscopy and Analysis, TCD, for his help with the SEM/EDX analyses. We acknowledge the support of the technical staff in the Dept. of Civil Engineering, TCD, specially Mr. Chris O’Donovan, Chief Technician, and Mr. Eoin Dunne. We also thank Mr L. Byrne of Clogrennane Lime; Mr. E. Byrne of The Traditional lime Co for donating materials; and Mr. Declan O’Brien and Mr. Colm Bannon, of Irish Cement, for providing the CKD and its chemical composition by XRF.


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Copyright information

© RILEM 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil, Structural and Environmental EngineeringTrinity College DublinDublinIreland

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