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A layered nonstoichiometric lepidocrocite-type sodium titanate anode material for sodium-ion batteries


Further performance improvements of sodium-ion batteries require better-performing electrode materials, particularly anodes. The layered lepidocrocite-type sodium titanate (Na0.74Ti1.8150.185O4·1.27H2O), showing a high Na+ storage capacity of 229 mAh g−1 at relatively low average voltage of ca. 0.6 V vs. Na+/Na, is a promising candidate anode material.


A lepidocrocite-structured sodium titanate prepared by ion-exchange of a Cs-containing precursor shows promise as an anode material for sodium ion batteries, with a discharge capacity of up to 229 mAh g−1 at an average potential of about 0.6 V vs. Na+/Na. Titanium vacancies in the metal oxide layers provide additional sites for sodium intercalation in addition to interlayer sites, which accounts for the higher capacity compared to other previously reported lepidocrocite-structured titanates. By screening a series of electrolyte formulations and binders, we were able to improve the first-cycle coulombic efficiency to 81.8% and 94.7% respectively using CMC/SBR-based and binder-free electrodes in ether electrolytes. The electrochemical consequences of short-term air-exposure on the electrodes are also discussed.

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The data that support the findings of this study are available in the electronic supplementary materials.


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This work was supported by the Assistant Secretary for Energy, Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Vehicle Technologies of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. Work at the Molecular Foundry of Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL) was supported by the Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. We would like to acknowledge the use of the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, that is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Contract No. DE-AC02-76SF00515. Use of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357. This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. While this document is believed to contain correct information, neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor the Regents of the University of California, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by its trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof, or the Regents of the University of California. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof or the Regents of the University of California. We thank Dr Sami Sainio for collecting soft X-ray absorption spectra.

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Correspondence to Marca M. Doeff.

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Yin, W., Alvarado, J., Barim, G. et al. A layered nonstoichiometric lepidocrocite-type sodium titanate anode material for sodium-ion batteries. MRS Energy & Sustainability (2021).

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  • energy storage
  • sustainability
  • Ti
  • intercalation