Electrical currents that are locally concentrated due to spatially variable interface resistance at the lithium-metal–ceramic–electrolyte interface can lead to the nucleation of voids. The Gibbs free energy barrier to nucleation is derived in terms of the electrochemical driving force, which favors, and the interfacial energies, which oppose the development of an embryo, the first step in the formation of a void. Nucleation can be suppressed by low values of the area-specific resistance (ASR) of the cell, and by chemical design of the interface that produces a high value for the contact angle. It is proposed that void nucleation is the precursor to the formation of dendrites.
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The work on creep fracture was carried out in the seventies when it was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research.
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I do not have any conflict of interest related to the content in this manuscript.
This article was updated to correct the fourth paragraph in the introduction. Due to errors introduced during the production process Ω appeared as W throughout the paragraph.
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Raj, R. Nucleation of voids at Li-metal–ceramic–electrolyte interfaces. MRS Communications (2021). https://doi.org/10.1557/s43579-021-00089-x
- Void formation
- Lithium metal
- Ceramic electrolytes
- Current density