Inflammation is facilitated largely by macrophages and other white blood cells, which recognize and respond to evolutionarily conserved damage-associated molecular patterns that are released upon tissue injury and cell stress. Damage-associated molecular patterns are known to bind Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and initiate inflammatory responses through MyD88-dependent NF-KB signaling. Biomaterial implantation activates the innate immune system, resulting in a chronic inflammatory response known as a foreign body reaction (FBR). In this review, the authors discuss the current understanding of damage-initiated TLR signaling in the FBR and the significance of this response in the success of implanted devices.
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McKiel, L.A., Woodhouse, K.A. & Fitzpatrick, L.E. The role of Toll-like receptor signaling in the macrophage response to implanted materials. MRS Communications 10, 55–68 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1557/mrc.2019.154