While most papers on high-entropy alloys (HEAs) focus on the microstructure and mechanical properties for structural materials applications, there has been growing interest in developing high-entropy functional materials. The objective of this paper is to provide a brief, timely review on select functional properties of HEAs, including soft magnetic, magnetocaloric, physical, thermoelectric, superconducting, and hydrogen storage. Comparisons of functional properties between HEAs and conventional low- and medium-entropy materials are provided, and examples are illustrated using computational modeling and tuning the composition of existing functional materials through substitutional or interstitial mixing. Extending the concept of high configurational entropy to a wide range of materials such as intermetallics, ceramics, and semiconductors through the isostructural design approach is discussed. Perspectives are offered in designing future high-performance functional materials utilizing the high-entropy concepts and high-throughput predictive computational modeling.
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This work was performed in support of the US Department of Energy’s Fossil Energy Crosscutting Technology Research Program. The research was executed through the NETL Research and Innovation Center’s Advanced Alloy Development Field Work Proposal. Research performed by AECOM Staff was conducted under the RES contract DE-FE0004000. X.H.Y. and Y.Z. appreciate financial support from the National Science Foundation of China (No. 51471025) and 111 Project (B07003). D.B.M. acknowledges support from the Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate. M.C.G. thanks Zhao Fan, Sheng Guo, Xun Shi, Tingting Zuo, Shengguo Ma, Hui Xu, Karoline Stolze, and Ke Jin for sharing the original data of their publications.
DISCLAIMER: This work was funded by the Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, an agency of the United States Government, through a support contract with AECOM. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, nor AECOM, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, expressed or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof.
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Gao, M.C., Miracle, D.B., Maurice, D. et al. High-entropy functional materials. Journal of Materials Research 33, 3138–3155 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1557/jmr.2018.323