We present a bottom-up fabrication route to fabricate solid-solution Rh–Pd–Pt ternary alloy nanoparticles (NPs), with well-controlled compositions through femtosecond laser irradiation of a mixed solution of metallic ions, without any reducing agents and complicated processes. The structure of fabricated NPs was crystalline, and formation of solid-solution alloy formation was confirmed by electron and x-ray diffraction measurements. The crystalline nature of alloy NPs was also confirmed through high-resolution transmission electron microscope measurement. According to energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis, elemental composition of an individual NP was almost the same as the initial feeding ratio of ions in the mixed solutions. The electronic state of the element in alloy NPs was confirmed to be pure metal by XPS measurement. The structural studies of Rh–Pd–Pt NPs suggested that the demonstrated technique opens up a new dimension for the fabrication of NPs, which has well-controlled properties for practical use in various fields.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
S. Link, Z.L. Wang, and M.A. El-Sayed: Alloy formation of gold–silver nanoparticles and the dependence of the plasmon absorption on their composition. J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 3529 (1999).
RF. Service: Small clusters hit the big time. Science 271, 920 (1996).
Y. Zeng, Y. Wang, J. Jiang, and Z. Jin: Rh nanoparticle catalysed hydrogenation of olefins in the thermoregulated ionic liquid. Catal. Commun. 19, 70 (2012).
J.R. Renzas, W. Huang, Y. Zhang, M.E. Grass, and G.A. Somorjai: Rh1-xPdx nanoparticle composition dependence in CO oxidation by NO. Catal. Lett. 141, 235 (2011).
H. Zhang and N. Toshima: Preparation of novel Au-Pt-Ag trimetallic nanoparticles and their high catalytic activity for aerobic glucose oxidation. Appl. Catal. A: General 400, 9 (2011).
M.A. Newton, B. Jyoti, A.J. Dent, S. Diaz-Moreno, S.G. Fiddy, and J. Evans: The impact of phase changes, alloying and segregation in supported RhPd catalysts during selective NO reduction by H2. Chem. Phys. Chem. 5, 1056 (2004).
J.R. Renzas, W. Huang, Y. Zhang, M.E. Grass, D.T. Hoang, S. Alayoglu, D.R. Butcher, F.F. Tao, Z. Liu, and G.A. Somoraji: Rh(1-x)Pd(x) nanoparticle composition dependence in CO oxidation by oxygen: Catalytic activity enhancement in bimetallic systems. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13, 2556 (2010).
K. Siepen, H. Bönnemann, W. Brijoux, J. Rothe, and J. Hormes: EXAFS/XANES, chemisorption and IR investigation of colloidal Pt/Rh bimetallic catalysts. Appl. Organomet. Chem. 14, 549 (2000).
C.E. Lyman, R.E. Lakis, and H.G. Stenger: X-ray emission spectrometry of phase separation in Pt-Rh nanoparticles for nitric oxide reduction. Ultramicroscopy 58, 25 (1995).
X. Zhang, F. Zhang, and K.Y. Chan: Preparation of Pt–Ru–Co trimetallic nanoparticles and their electrocatalytic properties. Catal. Commun. 5, 749 (2004).
L. Wang and Y. Yamauchi: Strategic synthesis of trimetallic Au@Pd@Pt core-shell nanoparticles from Poly(vinylpyrrolidone)-based aqueous solution toward highly active electrocatalysts. Chem. Mater. 23, 2457 (2011).
H. Zhang and N. Toshima: Glucose oxidation using Au-containing bimetallic and trimetallic nanoparticles. Catal. Sci. Technol. 3, 268 (2013).
T. Matsushita, Y. Shiraishi, S. Horiuchi, and N. Toshima: Synthesis and catalysis of polymer-protected Pd-Ag-Rh trimetallic nanoparticles with a core–shell structure. Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 80, 1217 (2007).
S.H. Tsai, Y.H. Liu, P.L. Wu, and C.H. Yeh: Preparation of Au–Ag–Pd trimetallic nanoparticles and their application as catalysts. J. Mater. Chem. 13, 978 (2003).
G.C. Bond: The electronic structure of platinum-gold alloy particles. Platinum. Met. Rev. 51, 63 (2007).
Y. Herbani, T. Nakamura, and S. Sato: Femtosecond laser-induced formation of gold rich nanoalloys from the aqueous mixture of gold-silver ions. J. Nanomater. 2010, 154210 (2010).
T. Nakamura, Y. Herbani, and S. Sato: Fabrication of solid-solution gold-platinum nanoparticles with controllable compositions by high-intensity laser irradiation of solution. J. Nanopart. Res. 14, 785 (2012).
M.S.I. Sarker, T. Nakamura, Y. Herbani, and S. Sato: Fabrication of Rh based solid solution bimetallic alloy nanoparticles with fully tunable composition through femtosecond laser irradiation in aqueous solution. Appl. Phys. A 110, 145 (2013).
Y. Herbani, T. Nakamura, and S. Sato: Synthesis of platinum-based binary and ternary alloy nanoparticles in intense laser field. J. Coll. Interface Sci. 375, 78 (2012).
S. Pommeret, F. Gobert, M. Mostafavi, I. Lampre, and J.C. Mialocq: Femtochemistry of hydrated electron at decimolar concentration. J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 11400 (2001).
S.L. Chin and S. Legacé: Generation of H2, O2 and H2O2 from water by the use of intense femtosecond laser pulses and the possibility of laser sterilization. Appl. Opt. 35, 907 (1996).
K. Yuge: Concentration effects on segregation behavior of Pt-Rh nanoparticles. Phys Rev B 84, 085451 (2011).
L. Vegard and H. Dale: Untersuchungen ueber Mischkristalle und Legierungen. J. Kristallogr. 67, 148 (1928).
J. Jakobi, A. Menendez-Manjon, V.S.K. Chakravadhanula, L. Kienle, P. Wagener, and S. Barcikowski: Stoichiometry of alloy nanoparticles from laser ablation of PtIr in acetone and their electrophoretic deposition on PtIr electrodes. Nanotechnology 22, 145601 (2011).
H.R. Kuhn and D. Günter: Elemental fractionation studies in laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry on laser-induced brass aerosols. Anal. Chem. 75, 747 (2003).
B.V. Christ: Hand Book of Monochromatic XPS Spectra (Wiley, New York, 2000).
J.Y. Park, Y. Zhang, M. Grass, T. Zhang, and G.A. Somoraji: Tuning of catalytic CO oxidation by changing composition of Rh-Pt bimetallic nanoparticles. Nano. Lett. 8, 673 (2008).
About this article
Cite this article
Sarker, M.S.I., Nakamura, T. & Sato, S. Composition-controlled ternary Rh–Pd–Pt solid-solution alloy nanoparticles by laser irradiation of mixed solution of metallic ions. Journal of Materials Research 29, 856–864 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1557/jmr.2014.62