The stress distribution of (111) textured Cu films with depth was measured by using a GIXS method. We derived the equation to correct a scattering diffraction angle with depth, measured in the GIXS Seemann-Bohlin geometry, to obtain the actual scattering angle. It was revealed after the correction of the measured scattering angles that the internal stresses of (111) grains, on the whole, tend to increase almost linearly with increasing film depth from the free surface toward the substrate. It was suggested that these results were opposite to the results of the elastic calculation reported, and hence that a large stress relaxation took place during and/or after deposition and annealing. After annealing at various temperatures, these stress distribution profiles are almost unchanged, and are simply shifted uniformly in magnitude.
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Himuro, T., Takayama, S. Temperature Dependence of Stress Distribution in Depth for Cu Thin Films. MRS Online Proceedings Library 854, U11.11 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-854-U11.11