A frequency doubled femtosecond Ti: sapphire laser at a wavelength of 400 nm, a pulse width of 160 fs, and a repetition rate of 1 kHz was used with a computer controlled galvo head to write periodical structures in Si <100>. Laser pulses of ~130 nJ were focused using an objective lens of 0.65 NA. Laser parameters were optimized for efficient submicron ablation, yielding 700 nm wide by 600 nm deep lines. 1-D and 2-D periodical structures of 5 and 5×5 micron periods, respectively, were fabricated and examined using optical and atomic force microscopy. The quality of the 1-D and 2-D structures was highly depended on the light polarization orientation with respect to micromachining direction. With optimized fs laser parameters, high quality 1-D and 2-D periodical structures were obtained, which would have applications in optical devices.
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El-Bandrawy, M., Gupta, M.C. Femtosecond Laser Micromachining of Periodical Structures in Si <100>. MRS Online Proceedings Library 850, 43–48 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-850-MM1.6