Zinc oxide is a very attractive material for a range of optoelectronic devices including blue light-emitting diodes and laser diodes. Though n-type doping has been successfully achieved, p-type doing of ZnO is still a challenge that must be overcome before p-n junction devices can be realized. Ion implantation is widely used in the microelectronics industry for selective area doping and device isolation. Understanding damage accumulation and recrystallization processes is important for achieving selective area doping. In this study, As (potential p-type dopant) ion implantation and annealing studies were carried out. ZnO samples were implanted with high dose (1.4 × 1017 ions/cm2) 300 keV As ions at room temperature. Furnace annealing of samples in the range of 900oC to 1200oC was employed to achieve recrystallization of amorphous layers and electrical activation of the dopant. Rutherford backscattering/channeling spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy and cathodolumiescence spectroscopy were used to monitor damage accumulation and annihilation behavior in ZnO. Results of this study have significant implications for p-type doing of ZnO by ion implantation.
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The Australian Research Council is acknowledged for its financial support. Work at the LLNL was performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by University of California, LLNL under contract W-7405-Eng-48.
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Coleman, V.A., Tan, H.H., Jagadish, C. et al. Towards p-type doping of ZnO by ion implantation. MRS Online Proceedings Library 829, 382–387 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-829-B8.7