Relatively high magnitude of swelling and low hydraulic conductivity are two of the performance requirements for the backfill placed around the radioactive waste package for the underground nuclear waste storage scheme. Some studies have been conducted in U.S. national laboratories and in other countries where the candidate backfill materials were tested under many different conditions to determine the expected range of these properties. This paper briefly examines the variables that were found to be significant in the evaluation of swelling and hydraulic conductivity and special emphasis is placed on the compaction method, compaction effort, and the moisture content at the time of compaction, which do not receive much consideration in ongoing test programs.
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Chung, R.M., Yokel, F.Y. Reference Laboratory Testing for Backfill. MRS Online Proceedings Library 6, 379–387 (1981). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-6-379