The incorporation of oxygen onto the (3x3) reconstructed surface of GaN(0001) has been studied using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). It was found that the (3x3) reconstruction corresponds to a fractional Ga adlayer atop a Ga terminated GaN surface. Our measurements indicate a surface coverage of 1.15 ± 0.2 monolayers of relaxed Ga on the surface. The binding energy separation between the relaxed surface Ga3d core level and bulk Ga3d level was measured to be 1.1 ± 0.1 eV. A metallic component extending from the bulk GaN valence band maximum out to 0 eV was also present in the XPS spectrum. The separation between the bulk valence band maximum and the Fermi level of the metallic component was found to be 2.1 ± 0. 1 eV. The relaxation of the surface Ga was found to decrease with oxygen exposure indicating Ga-O bonding, with oxygen adsorption terminating at 1.3 ± 0.2 monolayers. The Ols core level was found to have a FWHM of 2.0 ± 0.1 eV.
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Beach, R.A., Piquette, E.C., McGill, T.C. et al. XPS Study of Oxygen Adsorption on (3X3) Reconstructed MBE Grown GaN Surfaces. MRS Online Proceedings Library 537, 626 (1998). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-537-G6.26