A new laser direct-write process for patterning of metal on multichip modules has been developed. The process involves the laser modification of the non-conductive surface of a seed multilayer, converting it to a conductive surface, which can be electroplated with metal. The seed multilayer is composed of a TiW adhesion layer, onto which a Au film is sputtered, followed by an a-Si layer, which forms the non-conductive surface. The laser modifies the surface by alloying (or mixing) the Si and Au to form the conductive surface. This laser process has been shown to be capable of writing speeds of 2.5 m/s. With a silicon dioxide interlevel dielectric layer, the process works over a large range of laser power (Pmax/Pmin:_ 5). A polyimide interlevel dielectric layer can be used without damage or loss of adhesion, although the process margin is substantially reduced (Pmax/Pmin:_ 2).
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Malba, V., Bernhardt, A.F. A Fast Laser Alloying Process for the Selective Electroplating of Metal on SiO2 and Polyimide. MRS Online Proceedings Library 236, 91–96 (1991). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-236-91