First-order transitions to dilute stage one from stages 2,3 and 4 and from mixed stage 1+2 are observed in Li-graphite as predicted by Safran. The upper phase boundary is asymmetric in concentration and is sharply peaked about x ∼ 0.4. The phonons in the dilute stage 1 have energies between those of LiC6 and graphite. Unlike the stage 2 compounds, the compressibility does not scale in a simple way with intercalant density.
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Woo, K.C., Mertwoy, H., Fischer, J.E. et al. Staging Transitions In Li-Graphite: Phonon Spectra of Dilute Stage 1. MRS Online Proceedings Library 20, 265 (1982). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-20-265