Interface structure and formation between gold and trimethylcyclohexane polycarbonate


This paper presents the results of a systematic investigation of structure and formation of the interface between gold and trimethylcyclohexane polycarbonate, particularly concerning interface evolvement during gold evaporation and the influence of evaporation rate, substrate temperature, and subsequent annealing. The means of investigation were cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Extensive metal diffusion into the polymer and cluster formation near the interface were observed at deposition rates of the order of one monolayer per minute and below. The penetration depth is strongly temperature dependent. At high evaporation rates metal aggregation at the surface prevents cluster formation inside the polymer. No diffusion into the polymer was observed from metal films deposited at room temperature after extensive annealing at elevated temperatures.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  1. 1.

    D.P.H. Hasselman, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 52, 600 (1955).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Z-H Jin and Y-W. Mai, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 1873 (1995).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    N. Claussen and D.P.H. Hasselman, in Thermal Stresses in Severe Environments, edited by D.P.H. Hasselman and R.A. Heller (Plenum, New York, 1980), p. 381.

  4. 4.

    P.F. Becher and W.H. Warwick, NATO ASI Series, Series E: Applied Science, edited by G.A. Schneider and G. Petzow (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1993), Vol. 241, p 37.

  5. 5.

    W.D. Kingery, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 38, 3 (1955).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    H. Wang and R.N. Singh, Int. Mater. Rev. 39, 6 (1994).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    P.F. Becher, Comm. Am. Ceram. Soc. 1, C-17 (1981).

  8. 8.

    K. Upadhya, J.M. Yang, and W.P. Hoffman, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull. 75(12), 51 (1997).

  9. 9.

    O.B. Bøggild, Kong. Dansk. Vidensk. Selskabs Skrifter, 9, 235 (1930).

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    J.D. Currey, Proc. Roy. Soc. B196, 443 (1997).

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    D. Sherman, J. Lemaitre, and F.A. Leckie, Acta Metall. 43, 3261 (1995).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    D. Sherman, J. Lamaitre, and F.A. Leckie, Acta. Metall. 43, 4483 (1995).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    W.A. Cutler, F.W. Zok, and F.F. Lange, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 79, 1825 (1996).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    W.J. Clegg, K. Kendall, N.M. Alford, D. Birchall, and T.W. Button, Nature 347, 455 (1990).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    W.J. Clegg, Acta. Metall. Mater. 40, 3093 (1992).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    L. Zhang and V.D. Krstic, Theo. App. Frac. Mech. 24, 13 (1995).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    D.B. Marshall, J.J. Ratto, and F.F. Lange, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 74, 2979 (1991).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    A.G. Evans, A. Bartlett, J.B. Davis, B.D. Flinn, M. Turner, and I.E. Reimanis, Scripta Metall. Mater. 25, 1003 (1991).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    T.S. Oh, J. Rodel, R.M. Cannon, and R.O. Ritchie, Acta Metall. 36, 2083 (1988).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    I.E. Reimanis, B.J. Dalgleish, and A.G. Evans, Acta Metall. 39, 3133 (1991).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    A. Schussler and K-H.Z. Gahr, J. de Physique IV 1, C7-121 (1991).

  22. 22.

    C-H. Cho and Jin Yu, Scripta Metall. 26, 1737 (1990).

    Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    M. Naka, K. Sahpath, I. Okamoto, and Y. Arata, Mater. Sci. Eng. 98, 407 (1988).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    M. Naka, K. Kim, I. Okamoto, Trans. of JWRI 13, 157 (1984).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    D. Sherman, Mater. Lett. 33, 255 (1998).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    D. Sherman and D. Schlumm (unpublished).

  27. 27.

    A.G. Evans and J.W. Hutchinson, Acta Metall. Mater. 43, 2507 (1995).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to C. V. Bechtolsheim.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Bechtolsheim, C.V., Zaporojtchenko, V. & Faupel, F. Interface structure and formation between gold and trimethylcyclohexane polycarbonate. Journal of Materials Research 14, 3538–3543 (1999).

Download citation