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Journal of Flow Chemistry

, Volume 5, Issue 3, pp 148–150 | Cite as

The Preparation of Ethyl Levulinate Facilitated by Flow Processing: The Catalyzed and Uncatalyzed Esterification of Levulinic Acid

  • Meghan P. Negus
  • Andrew C. Mansfield
  • Nicholas E. Leadbeater
Communication
  • 17 Downloads

Abstract

The catalyzed and uncatalyzed preparation of ethyl levulinate from levulinic acid and ethanol is presented. In the case of acid-catalyzed reactions, conditions were optimized in batch using microwave heating and then scaled-up using continuous-flow processing. Both p-toluenesulfonic acid and sulfuric acid were used as catalysts, the latter proving most amenable. For the uncatalyzed reactions, all reactions were performed under continuous-flow conditions, using apparatus capable of operating at high temperature and pressure. Optimal conditions for the uncatalyzed process required heating a 3.6-M solution of levulinic acid in ethanol at 270 °C with a residence time of 30 min.

Keywords

esterification high pressure biomass 

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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Meghan P. Negus
    • 1
  • Andrew C. Mansfield
    • 2
  • Nicholas E. Leadbeater
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryUniversity of ConnecticutStorrsUSA
  2. 2.Vapourtec Ltd.Park Farm Business CentreUK
  3. 3.Department of Community Medicine and Health CareUniversity of Connecticut Health Center, The ExchangeFarmingtonUnited States

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