Productivity and disease resistance of primary hexaploid synthetic wheat lines and their crosses with bread wheat


Hexaploid synthetic wheat, derived from crosses between durum wheat and Aegilops tauschii, is widely accepted as an important source of useful traits for wheat breeding. During 2015 and 2016, three groups of synthetics were studied in Azerbaijan (3 sites) and Russia (1 site). Group 1 comprised CIMMYT primary synthetics derived from eastern European winter durum wheats crossed to Ae. tauschii accessions from the Caspian Sea basin. Group 2 included lines derived from CIMMYT synthetics × bread wheat crosses. Group 3 consisted of synthetics developed in Japan by crossing durum variety Langdon with a diverse collection of Ae. tauschii accessions. Varieties Bezostaya-1 and Seri were used as checks. Group 1 synthetics were better adapted and more productive than those in group 3, indicating that the durum parent plays an important role in the adaptation of synthetics. Compared to Bezostaya-1 synthetics produced fewer spikes per unit area, an important consideration for selecting bread wheat parents for maintenance of productivity. Synthetics had longer spikes but were not generally free-threshing. All synthetics and derivatives had 1000-kernel weights comparable to Bezostya-1 and significantly higher than Seri. All primary synthetics were resistant to leaf rust, several to stem rust, and few to stripe rust. Superior genotypes from all three groups that combine high expression of spike productivity traits and stress tolerance index were identified.


  1. Ali, M.B., El-Sadek, A.N. 2016. Evaluation of drought tolerance indices for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under irrigated and rainfed conditions. Commun. in Biometry and Crop Sci. 11:77–89.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Becker, S.R., Byrne, P.F., Reid, S.D., Bauerle, W.L., McKay, J.K., Haley, S.D. 2016. Root traits contributing to drought tolerance of synthetic hexaploid wheat in a greenhouse study. Euphytica 307:213–224.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Dunckel, S., Crossa, J., Wu, Shuangye, Bonnett, D., Poland, J. 2017. Genomic selection for increased yield in synthetic-derived wheat. Crop Sci. 57:713–725.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Gaju, O, DeSilva, J., Carvalho, P., Hawkesford, M.J., Griffiths, S., Greenland, A., Foulkes, M.J. 2016. Leaf photosynthesis and associations with grain yield, biomass and nitrogen-use efficiency in landraces, synthetic-derived lines and cultivars in wheat. Field Crop Res. 193:1–15.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Jafarzadeh, J., Bonnett, D., Jannink, J.-L., Akdemir, D., Dreisigacker, S., Sorrells, M.E. 2016. Breeding value of primary synthetic wheat genotypes for grain yield. PLoS ONE 11:e0162860.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Jighly, A., Alagu, M., Makdis, F., Singh, M., Singh, S., Emebiri, L.C., Ogbonnaya, F.C. 2016. Genomic regions conferring resistance to multiple fungal pathogens in synthetic hexaploid wheat. Mol. Breeding 36:127.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Matsuoka, Y., Takumi, S., Kawahara, T. 2007. Natural variation for fertile triploid F1 hybrid formation in allohexaploid wheat speciation. Theor. Appl. Genet. 115:509–518.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Mujeeb-Kazi, A., Gul, A., Farooq, M., Rizwan, S., Ahmad, I. 2008. Rebirth of synthetic hexaploids with global implications for wheat improvement. Aust. J. of Agric. Res. 59:391–398.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Morgounov, A., Abugalieva, A., Akan, K., Akın, B., Baenziger, S., Bhatta, M., Dababat, A.A., Demir, L., Dutbayev, Ye., El Bouhssini, M., Erginbaş-Orakci, G., Kishii, M., Keser, M., Koç, E., Kurespek, A., Mujeeb-Kazi, A., Yorgancılar, A., Özdemir, F., Özturk, I., Payne, T.S., Qadimaliyeva, G., Shamanin, V., Subasi, K., Suleymanova, G., Yakişir, E., Zelenskiy, Yu. 2017. High-yielding winter synthetic hexaploid wheats resistant to multiple diseases and pests. Plant Genet. Res. doi:10.1017/S147926211700017X.

  10. Ogbonnaya, F.C., Abdalla, O., Mujeeb-Kazi, A., Kazi, A.G., Xu, S.S., Gosman, N., Lagudah, E.S. 2013. Synthetic hexaploids: harnessing species of primary gene pool for wheat improvement. Plant Breeding Rev. 37:35–122.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Pinto, R.S., Molero, G., Reynolds, M.P. 2017. Identification of heat tolerant wheat lines showing genetic variation in leaf respiration and other physiological traits. Euphytica 213: DOI 10.1007/s10681-017-1858-8.

  12. Terrile, I.T., Miralles, D.J., González, F.G. 2017. Fruiting efficiency in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): Trait response to different growing conditions and its relation to spike dry weight at anthesis and grain weight at harvest. Field Crops Res. 201:86–96.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Trethowan, R.M., Mujeeb-Kazi, A. 2008. Novel germplasm resources for improving environmental stress tolerance of hexaploid wheat. Crop Sci. 48:1255–1265.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to A. Morgounov.

Additional information

Communicated by R.A. McIntosh

Rights and permissions

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Gadimaliyeva, G., Aminov, N., Jahangirov, A. et al. Productivity and disease resistance of primary hexaploid synthetic wheat lines and their crosses with bread wheat. CEREAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS 46, 355–364 (2018).

Download citation


  • abiotic stress
  • biotic stress
  • synthetics
  • wheat breeding