Advertisement

Community Ecology

, Volume 9, Supplement 1, pp 23–31 | Cite as

Long term grassland vegetation changes: Case study Nature Park Stara Planina (Serbia)

  • Z. Dajić StevanovićEmail author
  • A. Peeters
  • S. Vrbničanin
  • I. Šoštarić
  • S. Aćić
Open Access
Article
  • 1 Downloads

Abstract

Changes in grassland flora and vegetation caused by inadequate management, primarily under-grazing and grasslands abandonment were studied in the south-east region of Serbia – Mt. Stara Planina, the largest mountain massif of the country. This mountain is one of the major centres of tertiary and endemic-relict plant species that remains in ravines, and glacial relics and mountain endemic species. The paper presents an analysis and comparison of previous (about 30 years ago) and current biodiversity of the most common grasslands, such as: ass. Festuco-Agrostietum vulgaris, Agrostio-Asphodeletum albae, Koelerietum montanae, Agrostietum vulgaris, Festucetum spadiceae, Nardetum strictae, Poetum molinerii-Plantagi-netum carinatae, Poetum violaceae and Seslerietum coerulantis. Both environmental and human impacts on grassland vegetation were discussed and a proposal of sustainable grassland use and management is given.

Keywords

Biodiversity Floristic composition Management Npsp Restoration 

References

  1. Berlin, G.A.I., A.-C. Linusson and E.G.A. Olsson. 2000. Vegetation changes in semi-natural meadows with unchanged management in southern Sweden, 1965–1990. Acta Oecol 21:125–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Blažková, D. and S. Březina. 2003. Secondary succession in abandoned “poloniny” meadows, Bukovske vrchy Mts., Eastern Carpathians, Slovakia. Thaiszia J. Bot. 13:159–207.Google Scholar
  3. Braun Blanquet, J. 1965. Plant sociology – the study of plant communities. Hafner Publishing Company, New York.Google Scholar
  4. Buckland, S.M., K. Thompson, J.G. Hodgson and J.P. Grime. 2001. Grassland invasions: effects of manipulations of climate and management. J. Appl. Ecol. 38:301–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bullock, J.M., B.C. Hill, J. Silvertown and M. Sutton. 1995. Gap colonization as source of grassland community change: effects of gap size and grazing on the rate and mode of colonization by different species. Oikos 72:273–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ciurzycki, W. 2004. The influence of some environmental factors on the succession dynamics of the Norway spruce on the upper montane belt blades excluded from pastorage in Polish Tatra mountains. Silwan 9:20–28.Google Scholar
  7. Cousins, S.A.O. and O. Eriksson. 2002. The influence of management history and habitat on plant species richness in a rural hemiboreal landscape, Sweden. Landscape Ecol. 17: 517–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Djordjeviæ-Miloševiæ, S. 1996. Dynamics of organic production and biomass quality of grasslands of the different altitudes of the Mt. Stara Planina. PhD, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Belgrade.Google Scholar
  9. Flora Europaea 1968–1980. (ed.) T. Tutin, V. H. Haywood, N. A. Burges, D. M. Moore and D. Valentine. University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  10. Flora of Serbia 1970–1986. (ed.) M. Josifoviæ. Serbian Academy of Science and Art, Belgrade. (in Serbian).Google Scholar
  11. Gu, W.D., R. Heikkila and I. Hanski. 2002. Estimating the consequences of habitat fragmentation on extinct risk in dynamic landscapes. Landscape Ecology 17:699–710.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gustavsson, E., T. Lennartsson and M. Emanuelsson. 2007. Land use more than 200 years ago explains current grassland plant diversity in a Swedish agricultural landscape. Biol. Conserv. 138:47–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hejcman, M., P. Ne〉erkova, V. Pavlu, J. Gaisler, T. Lokvenc and L. Pavlu. 2005. Regeneration of Nardus stricta sub-alpine grasslands in the giant mountains (Krkonoše). Acta Soci. Bot. Poloniae. 74:253–258.Google Scholar
  14. Hellström, K., A.P. Huhta, P. Rautio, J. Toumi, J. Oksanen and K. Laine. 2003. Use of sheep grazing in the restoration of seminatural meadows in northern Finland. Appl. Veg. Sci. 6: 45–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Honnay, O., E. Coart, J. Butaye, D. Adriaens, S. Van Glabeke and I. Roldan-Ruiz. 2006. Low impact of present and historical landscape configuration of the genetics of fragmented Anthyllis vulneraria populations. Biol. Conserv. 127:411–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Illyés, E., M. Chytrý, Z. Botta-Dukát, U. Jandt, I. Škodová, M. Janišova, W. Willner and O. Hájek. 2007. Semi-dry grasslands along a climatic gradient across Central Europe: vegetation classification with validation. J. Veg. Sci. 18:835–846.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Janssens, F., A. Peeters, J.R.B. Tallowin, J.B. Bakker, R.M. Bekker, F. Filat and M.J.M. Oomes. 1998. Relationship between soil chemical factors and grassland diversity. Plant Soil 202:69–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kahmen, S., P. Poschlod and K.-F. Schreiber. 2002. Conservation management of calcareous grasslands. Changes in plant species composition and response of functional traits during 25 years. Biol. Conserv. 104:319–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kojiæ, M., Mrfat-Vukeliæ, S., Dajiæ, Z., Djordjeviæ-Miloševiæ, S. 2004. Meadows and grazing pastures of Serbia. Institute for agricultural research ‘Serbia’, Belgrade. (in Serbian).Google Scholar
  20. Kojić, M., S. Mrfat-Vukelić, Z. Dajić, S. Ajder and S. Ostojić. 1995. Distribution, major characteristics and further research of the plant community Nardetum strictae sensu lato in Serbia. Bulletin Inst. Bot. Botanic. Garden, University of Belgrade, 28:115–136 (in Serbian).Google Scholar
  21. Kojiæ, M., S. Vrbnièanin, Z. Dajiæ and S. Mrfat-Vukeliæ. 2001. Weed flora of natural grasslands in Serbia. Acta herbol. 10:1–22.Google Scholar
  22. Krahulec, F., H. Skálová, T. Herben, V. Hadincová, R. Wildová and S. Pechácková. 2001. Vegetation changes following sheep grazing in abandoned mountain meadows. Appl. Veg. Sci. 4:97–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lakušić, D. 2005. Relation between species and ecosystem diversity. In: V. Stevanoviæ (ed.), Biodiversity at the onset of the new millennium. Serbian Academy of Science and Art, Belgrade, pp. 75–102. (in Serbian).Google Scholar
  24. Magurran, A.E. 1988. Ecological diversity and its measurement. Chapman and Hall, London.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mauer, K., A. Weyland, M. Fischer and J. Stöcklin. 2006. Old cultural traditions, in addition to landuse and topography, are shaping plant diversity of grasslands in the Alps. Biol. Conserv. 130:438–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mijoviæ, D. 2006. Nature park of the Mt. Stara Planina, Study of the Institute for Nature Protection, Belgrade.Google Scholar
  27. Mišić, V., Jovanoviæ-Dunjiæ, R., Popoviæ, M., Borisavljeviæ, Lj., Antiæ, M., Diniæ, A., Danon, J., BlaDenèiæ,Z. 1978. Plant communites and habitats of the Stara Planina, Serbian Academy of Sciences and Art, Belgrade. (in Serbian).Google Scholar
  28. Mortimer, S.R., J.A. Hollier and V.K. Brown. 1998. Interactions between plant and insect diversity in the restoration of lowland calcareous grasslands in southern Britain. Appl. Veg. Sci. 1:101–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Norderhaug, A., M. Ishe, O. Pedersen. 2000. Biotope pattern and abundance of meadow plant species in a Norwegian rural landscape. Landscape Ecol. 15:201–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Őckinger, E., A.K. Eriksson and H.G. Smith. 2006. Effects of grassland abandonment, restoration and management on butterflies and vascular plants. Biol. Conserv. 133:291–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Peeters, A. and Z. Dajić. 2006. Grassland management study for the Stara Planina, Mt. Nature Park. Proposals of biodiversity restoration measures. Project report. Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management of the Republic of Serbia.Google Scholar
  32. Pignatti, S. 1982. Flora d’Italia (3 Vol). Edagricole, Bologna.Google Scholar
  33. Poschlod, P. and M.F. Wallis DeVries. 2002. The historical and socioeconomic perspective of calcareous grasslands – lessons from the distant and recent past. Biol. Conserv. 104: 361–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Pykälä, J. 2005. Plant species responses to cattle grazing in mesic semi-natural grassland. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 108: 109–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Pykälä, J., M. Luoto, R.K. Heikkinen and T. Kontula. 2005. Plant species richness and persistence of rare plants in abandonment semi-natural grasslands in northern Europe. Basic Appl. Ecol. 6:25–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Rudmann-Maurer, K., A. Weyand, M. Fischer and J. Stöcklin. 2008 The role of landuse and natural determinants for grassland vegetation composition in the Swiss Alps. Basic Appl. Ecol. 5:494–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sebastiá, M.T. 2004. Role of topography and soils in grassland structuring at the landscape and community scales. Basic Appl. Ecol. 5:331–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Stevanović, V., Jovanović, S., Lakušić, D. 1995. Diversity of Yugoslavian vegetation. In: V. Stevanović and V. Vasić (eds.), Biodiversity of Yugoslavia with review of species of the international importance, Faculty of Biology and Ecolibri, Belgrade, pp. 219–241. (in Serbian).Google Scholar
  39. Stohlgren, T.J., D. Binkley, G.W. Chong, M.A. Kalkhan, L.D. Schell, K.A. Bull, Y. Otsuki, G. Newman, M. Bashkin, and Y. Son. 1999. Exotic plant species invade hot spots of native plant diversity. Ecol. Monogr. 69:25–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Thompson, K., J. Bakker and R. Bekker. 1997. The soil seedbanks of north west Europe: methodology, density and longevity. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  41. Tracy, B.F. and M.A. Sanderson. 2004. Forage productivity, species evenness and weed invasion in pasture communities. Agricul. Ecosyst. Environ. 102:175–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Wellstein, C., A. Otte and R. Waldhardt. 2007. Impact of site and management on the diversity of central European mesic grassland. Agricul. Ecosyst. Environ. 122:203–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Westhoff, W. and van der Maarel E. 1973. The Braun Blanquet approach. In: Whittaker, R.H. (ed.). Handbook of Vegetation Science 5. Ordination and Classification of Communities. Junk, the Hague.Google Scholar
  44. Zobel, M., E. van der Maarel and C. Dupré. 1998. Species pool. The concept, its determination, and significance for community restoration. Appl. Veg. Sci. 1:55–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest 2008

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  • Z. Dajić Stevanović
    • 1
    Email author
  • A. Peeters
    • 2
  • S. Vrbničanin
    • 1
  • I. Šoštarić
    • 1
  • S. Aćić
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Belgrade Faculty of AgricultureSerbia
  2. 2.RHEA — Bureau d’Etudes pour un Développement rural durable et la Gestion des Ecosystèmes, rue des AnciensBelgium

Personalised recommendations