Community Ecology

, Volume 7, Issue 2, pp 235–244 | Cite as

The effect of Juniperus virginiana on plant species composition in an Oklahoma grassland

  • J. S. Linneman
  • M. W. PalmerEmail author


We established transects under twenty Juniperus virginiana trees that invaded an unburned central Oklahoma grassland within the last 20 years to determine their effects on plant species composition. Species richness and stem density increased as distance from the trunk increased. Stem density was also higher towards the south side of trees. Graminoid, forb and total cover were related to distance from the trunk and transect direction. Ordination revealed weak compositional gradients related to “openness” and compass direction. Woody species tended to be most abundant underneath J. virginiana canopies whereas grass and forb species were most abundant in the prairie. Woody and shadetolerant species preferentially occurred in north transects and quadrats underneath the tree. Conversely, forbs had highest abundance on edge quadrats whereas graminoids dominated south transects and prairie quadrats. Thus, invasion of grasslands by J. virginiana influences species composition in a spatially complex manner.


Invasion Juniperus virginiana Oklahoma Tallgrass prairie 



Diameter at Breast Height


partial Canonical Correspondence Analysis


USDA NRCS (2004) 


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© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest 2006

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BotanyOklahoma State UniversityStillwaterUSA

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